Got Nature? Blog

The classic and trusted book “Fifty Common Trees of Indiana” by T.E. Shaw was published in 1956 as a user-friendly guide to local species.  Nearly 70 years later, the publication has been updated through a joint effort by the Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Indiana 4-H, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and reintroduced as “An Introduction to Trees of Indiana.”

The full publication is available for download for $7 in the Purdue Extension Education Store. The field guide helps identify common Indiana woodlot trees.

Each week, the Intro to Trees of Indiana web series will offer a sneak peek at one species from the book, paired with an ID That Tree video from Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee to help visualize each species as it stands in the woods. Threats to species health as well as also insight into the wood provided by the species, will be provided through additional resources as well as the Hardwoods of the Central Midwest exhibit of the Purdue Arboretum, if available.

This week, we introduce the Blue Beech or Carpinus caroliniana.Blue Beech leaf

The blue beech, also known as the American hornbeam, musclewood or the water beech, is an understory tree that stands out due to its gray bark and striations that resemble muscles and sinews as well as its doubly toothed leaves.

The small tree, which typically grows to a height of 20 to 35 feet, has oblong leaves with doubly toothed leaf margins, arranged alternately on very fine twigs. Lower leaf veins are seldom forked. The fruit is in clusters, consisting of small, seed-like nuts on small, three-lobed leaves. It’s bark and fruit help differentiate blue beech from its close relative, the ironwood.

Blue beech’s natural range is the majority of the midwestern and eastern United States, reaching as far south as Texas.

For full article and photos view Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources News: Trees of Indiana: Blue Beech.

Other Resources:
Beech – Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series
Fifty Trees of the Midwest app for the iPhone
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest
ID That Tree YouTube playlist
Woodland Management Moment YouTube playlist
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook The Education Store

Wendy Mayer, FNR Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Storm damage, trees downSafety first! Stay clear and look for dangerous hanging limbs, broken branches and other failures before beginning cleanup or inspections. Keep others clear of the areas beneath and around damaged trees. Be alert for power lines that could be involved with damaged trees. All utility lines should be considered energized and dangerous.

Lindsey Purcell, Purdue urban forestry specialist, shares, “in my experience, during storm cleanup, many tree owners are faced with the decision of what to do with their trees relative to restoration or removal”.  There are several types of tree damage that occur from violent weather. Each has its own specific assessment considerations. All parts of the tree should be inspected during a post-storm assessment. This requires the expertise of trained, professional arborists to assist with the decision making regarding the best course of action. Unfortunately, there are those who take advantage of the situation and overcharge or provide poor advice when it comes to the best decision on their trees. Don’t make any hasty decisions and be sure you are hiring an International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) Certified Arborist, ask for references and proof of insurance in the process. To find an arborist near you, verify credentials and to find more information on trees view video: Find an Arborist, Trees are Good, ISA.

View publication Trees and Storms located in The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center, for more information.

Resources:
Find an Arborist website, Trees are Good, International Society of Arboriculture (ISA)
Caring for storm-damaged trees/How to Acidify Soil in the Yard – In the Grow, Purdue Extension
Moist soil and rotten roots makes it easy for trees to come crashing down – Fox 59 News
Why Is My Tree Dying? – The Education Store
Tree Risk Management – The Education Store
Mechanical Damage to Trees: Mowing and Maintenance Equipment – The Education Store
Trees and Electric Lines – The Education Store

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


The classic and trusted book “Fifty Common Trees of Indiana” by T.E. Shaw was published in 1956 as a user-friendly guide to local species.  Nearly 70 years later, the publication has been updated through a joint effort by the Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Indiana 4-H, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and reintroduced as “An Introduction to Trees of Indiana.”

The full publication is available for download for $7 in the Purdue Extension Education Store. The field guide helps identify common Indiana woodlot trees.

Each week, the Intro to Trees of Indiana web series will offer a sneak peek at one species from the book, paired with an ID That Tree video from Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee to help visualize each species as it stands in the woods. Threats to species health as well as also insight into the wood provided by the species, will be provided through additional resources as well as the Hardwoods of the Central Midwest exhibit of the Purdue Arboretum, if available. American beech leaf line drawing

This week, we introduce the beech, or Fagus grandifolia.

The Beech is easily identified by its smooth gray bark and its simple leaves, which feature straight-line veins from the midrib to the small teeth on the margin. Beeches produce a 3/4-inch long fruit covered in spines, which typically holds two triangular-shaped nuts.

American beech is a shade tolerant species found in the understory often on moist but well-drained soils, that also reaches up into the forest canopy at around 70 to 80 feet tall. Beech is found throughout the Great Lakes region as well as the central and southeastern United States.

Beech is used to make items varying from wooden clothes pins to brush banks, handles and woodenware. Due to its strength and ease of turning, it is also used for chair production. Flooring, railroad ties, pallets and container veneer are other uses for this species.

For full article and photos view Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources: Trees of Indiana: Beech.

Beech woodgrains, Purdue Online Tour of the Hardwoods of the Central Midwest.View the Purdue Online Tour: Hardwoods of the Central Midwest and find out beech species workability, strength, if it can be steam bent, drying details and much more.

Resources:
Beech – Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series
Fifty Trees of the Midwest app, for the iPhone
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
ID That Tree, YouTube playlist
Woodland Management Moment, YouTube playlist
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center

Wendy Mayer, FNR Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on May 3rd, 2022 in Forestry, Land Use, Wildlife | No Comments »

Great American Rail Trail snakes through northwest to eastern IndianaMyDNR Newsletter, Indiana Department of Forestry and Natural Resources: Gov. Eric J. Holcomb and DNR Director Dan Bortner recently announced 38 communities and non-profit organizations will receive a combined $65 million for 77 miles of new trail development.

“Trails connect communities together in such a personal way and are perfect pathways to good mental and physical well-being,” Gov. Holcomb said.

A $150 million grant program, Next Level Trails is the largest infusion of trails funding in state history. In rounds one and two, a total of $55 million was awarded to 35 communities. To date, $120 million has been awarded to build 190 miles of trails throughout Indiana. Ninety-four percent of Hoosiers live within five miles of a trail.

The grants awarded in the third round include 17 regional projects and 21 local projects. The list of awards, project descriptions, and a map are posted at on.IN.gov/NLT-round-3.

Full article>>>

To read other news articles visit Indiana Department of forestry and Natural Resources website.

Resources:
Enhancing The Value of Public Spaces, Purdue Extension Forestry and Natural Resources
Enhancing The Value of Public Spaces: Creating Healthy Communities, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Fun Trail Event Days, Indiana Department of Natural Resources
Healthy and Wellness Videos, The Nature of Teaching YouTube Channel
Benefits of Connecting with Nature,  The Education Store

Indiana Department of Natural Resources


The classic and trusted book “Fifty Common Trees of Indiana” by T.E. Shaw was published in 1956 as a user-friendly guide to local species.  Nearly 70 years later, theBasswood line drawing. publication has been updated through a joint effort by the Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Indiana 4-H, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and reintroduced as “An Introduction to Trees of Indiana.”

The full publication is available for download for $7 in the Purdue Extension Education Store. The field guide helps identify common Indiana woodlot trees.

Each week, the Intro to Trees of Indiana web series will offer a sneak peek at one species from the book, paired with an ID That Tree video from Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee to help visualize each species as it stands in the woods. Threats to species health as well as also insight into the wood provided by the species, will be provided through additional resources as well as the Hardwoods of the Central Midwest exhibit of the Purdue Arboretum, if available.

This week, we introduce the basswood or Tilia Americana.

The American basswood, which is also called linden, is commonly identified by its simple heart-shaped leaves with finely toothed margins, flat bark with long running lines up and down the trees, and possibly a ring of sprouts originating from the base of the tree. The clusters of small, nutlike seeds (⅓-inch in diameter)
are attached by a stem to a leaflike wing.basswood wood panels from highest to lowest grade

This species is often found on moist sites, deep, loamy soils, with its range stretching from the Great Plains east and from southern Canada through northern Arkansas, Kentucky and the mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee.

With heights reaching 70 to 80 feet tall, basswood can offer good shade. It also offers good flowering for bees. This species has a light colored, fine-grained wood varying from a white color to a very light brown or flesh color.

Due to its weight and stability, basswood has historically been used to make Venetian blinds and key stock in pianos. It also is a preferred species for carving, including items like hunting decoys, etc.

Full article also can be viewed with Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources News: Trees of Indiana: American Basswood.

Other Resources
Basswood – Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series
Hardwoods of Central Indiana: American Basswood
Fifty Trees of the Midwest app for the iPhone
Native Trees of the Midwest
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest
ID That Tree YouTube playlist
Woodland Management Moment YouTube playlist
Investing in Indiana Woodlands
Forest Improvement Handbook

Wendy Mayer, FNR Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Spring is in full bloom and trees are beginning to look green again. Learning how to identify trees in yards, neighborhoods and local parks provides insight into the diversity and relationships found in nature. Lenny Farlee, Purdue Extension Forester, shares how to identify trees native to Indiana.

Leaf Arrangement
Leaf arrangement showing alternate and oppositeLeaf arrangement is one of the first characteristics to check for on deciduous (trees that lose their leaves annually) broadleaved trees that make up the majority of our native species. The two arrangements we commonly find are alternate and opposite.

Opposite arrangement means the leaves are held on the twig directly opposite of one another. Alternate leaf arrangement means the leaves are arranged on the twig in an offset manner. We have one leaf, then another in a zig-zag or spiral fashion.

There are only a few native tree families with opposite leaf arrangements: Maple, Ash, Dogwood, Catalpa, Buckeye. You can remember these from the anacronym MAD Cat Buck – Maple, Ash, Dogwood, Catalpa, Buckeye. Almost all other native trees have alternate leaf arrangements.

Leaf Types
The next characteristic to check is if the tree has simple or compound leaves. To do this, we need to understand the difference between a leaf and a leaflet. A leaf has a bud at the base of the stem. The entire structure after the bud is the leaf.

A simple leaf is singular and never divided into smaller leaflets. A compound leaf consists of several or many leaflets joined to a single stem after the bud.

Full article > > >

Resources:
ID That Tree, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Purdue Extension, website
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension Resource Center
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store

Purdue College of Agriculture News

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


The classic and trusted book “Fifty Common Trees of Indiana” by T.E. Shaw was published in 1956 as a user-friendly guide to local species.  Nearly 70 years later, the publication has been updated through a joint effort by the Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Indiana 4-H, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and reintroduced as “An Introduction to Trees of Indiana.”

The full publication is available for download for $7 in the Purdue Extension Education Store. The field guide helps identify common Indiana woodlot trees.

Each week, the Intro to Trees of Indiana web series will offer a sneak peek at one species from the book, paired with an ID That Tree video from Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee to help visualize each species as it stands in the woods. Threats to species health as well as also insight into the wood provided by the species, will be provided through additional resources as well as the Hardwoods of the Central Midwest exhibit of the Purdue Arboretum, if available.

This week, we introduce the quaking aspen or populus tremuloidesQuaking Aspen leaf line drawing.jpg

The quaking aspen, also known as the trembling aspen, is adaptable to a variety of soils, ranging from moisy loamy sands and clay, but it is shade intolerant. It is often found on the edge of woodlands or where the site has been disturbed, giving it access to full sunlight.

This species is identifiable by its whitish to grayish bark with dark spots where the branches come out of the trunk. It has small rounded leaves with very small teeth along the margin. Like most aspens, it has long flat leaf steams that are knowns to flutter in the wind.

Quaking aspen is found int he northern part of the state of Indiana. This species is found from Nefoundland through Alaska in the West, and as far south as Arizona. In the Midwest, it ranges south to northeastern Iowa, northern Illinois and Pennsylvania. It is also found in some scattered areas in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the most widely distributed tree in the United States.

According to the Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series, aspen is one of our lightest woods with a 12 percent moisture content and a weight of 26 to 27 pounds per cubic foot. It was at one time relegated to the pulp and paper industry as a weed tree, however it is now a favored species for the manufacturer of panel boards.

Full article also can be viewed with Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources News: Trees of Indiana: Quaking Aspen.

Other Resources
Aspen – Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series
Why Fall Color Is Sometimes a Dud – Purdue Landscape Report
Fifty Trees of the Midwest app for the iPhone
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store
ID That Tree YouTube playlist
Woodland Management Moment YouTube playlist
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook , The Education Store

Wendy Mayer, FNR Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

 


When Lindsey PurcellMatt Ginzel and Cliff Sadof began working on a research grant for Rotam North America regarding the use of trunk-injected emamectin benzoate to manage emerald ash borer, they set out to compare three commercially available insecticide injection systems.

Lindsey Purcell headshotThey looked at the variance in number of injection points, whether or not ports were plugged and more, while also conducting a long-term study examining the difference in protection provided by spring and fall injections.

“We know that Emamectin benzoate is an excellent tool for protecting ash trees,” Sadof explained. “The trick is to get it into the tree before the tree has exhibited substantial decline. After the tree’s vascular tissue has been compromised, it becomes less able to transport the insecticide through the phloem into the canopy where it can kill leaves.”

A publication detailing the results of the research will be published soon in an article titled “Diffusion and Efficacy of Trunk-injected Emamectin Benzoate to Manage Emerald Ash Borer.”

Sadof and Ginzel also published a separate article “Factors influencing efficacy of an area-wide pest management program in three urban forests” in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening in March 2021, which details how early applications of insecticide can help with area wide protection of ash trees.

Due to his involvement in the Rotam grant, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and SymTree Science owner Terry Marie Braniecki asked Purcell if he would contribute his expertise and time as a plant healthcare subject matter expert toward PNNL’s better, more environmentally sensitive and economical delivery solution for their tree-health products.

After two years of research and development sponsored by Elemental Enzymes, and several iterations of prototypes made on 3D printers, the patented device, designed by the team of PNNL staff, Purdue faculty and private companies, is currently being beta tested by the industry with select distributors for commercial use.

“There are several similar devices out in the plant health care industry, but SymTree Science and Elemental Enzyme asked me what do you use, what do you like to use and can we make something better,” Purcell said. “Out of research always comes additional research and innovation, so I said here’s what I have in mind and PNNL’s engineers took my input and made it happen. It was initially made to deliver pesticides. However, it can also be used for micronutrient packages to correct deficiencies in the tree or applied for emerald ash borer control. Additionally, a product is in development for dates and coconut palms, which have major pest problems that are hard to control. These chemical injections can help the tree proactively and reactively to manage current infestations, but also act to prevent infestation.”

The reusable injection device works in conjunction with prepackaged recyclable injectors, which are installed directly into the tree vascular system at the root flare. If a tree is translocating efficiently, chemicals can be fully injected in minutes.

Base of tree showing roots and injection set up, Lindsey Purcell's Microinjector.“The device is user friendly, it is simple and it protects the applicator because they have little to no exposure to chemicals and the environment has no exposure to chemicals,” Purcell explained. “It is very focused on the tree. It is not like you are broadcast spraying, where chemicals are vulnerable to drift. It is very safe for the environment and the people around it.”

On the PNNL website, the device, its design and functionality are described as follows:
“The Tree Micro-Injector delivers nutrition, pesticides and fungicides faster and easier than similar commercially available injectors. The device resembles a laboratory syringe, with an exterior housing holding a uniquely designed compressible pod. The housing and pod are made of polypropylene, a versatile, recyclable materials. An internal steel spring holds the pod in place and allows it to be precisely compressed to eject a liquid formulation through the housing’s nozzle. The single-use disposable pod can be prefilled with a variety of specialty formulations, such as nutrition fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides or plant growth regulators.”

Purcell worked in conjunction with Kevin Simmons, Allan Tuan, Dustin Clelland, Stan Owsley and David Long from PNNL; as well as Terry Marie Braniecki, owner of Symtree Science LLC; and Stacie Schumer, product manager at Elemental Enzymes, on the project.

The group was recognized for their work with the Excellence in Technology Transfer Award presented by the 2022 Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer. The Excellence in Technology Transfer Award recognizes employees of FLC member laboratories and non-laboratory staff who have accomplished outstanding work in the process of transferring federally developed technology. The award is based on contributions during the past 10 years.

The annual FLC awards are among the most reputed honors in the technology transfer field. PNNL has received 98 FLC awards since the program’s inception in 1984, including three in 2022. In addition to the injector, PNNL developed an airport security device that scans passengers’ shoes, which earned the Interagency Partnership Award; and a home energy efficiency assessment tool, which received the FLC Impact Award.

The FLC winners will be recognized at the 2022 FLC national meeting on April 6 in Cleveland, Ohio.

Full Article>>>

Resources:
Find an Arborist, Trees are Good
Tree wounds and healing, Got Nature? Blog
Ask an Expert: Tree Selection and Planting, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube Channel
Planting Your Tree Part 1: Choosing Your Tree, Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube Channel
Tree Installation: Process and Practices, The Education Store
Tree Pruning Essentials, The Education Store
Subscribe to Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube Channel

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resource

Wendy Mayer, Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resource


In this HEE Prescribed Fire video, Charlotte Owings, project coordinator on the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) explains the forest management technique of prescribed fire and how it is being utilized on the HEE.

What is HEE?
The focus of forest science is increasingly shifting to the management of forests as complex systems rather than as simple agricultural landscapes—with a much greater appreciation for the interactive ecosystem processes. In addition, now for many forest landowners, the ecological value of their land is at least as important as the economic return. It is, therefore, vital to understand how forest management affects not only timber production, but also the overall function of forested ecosystems.

The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) is a long-term, large-scale experimental study of forest management and its impacts. The project was initiated in 2006 with partners including: Ball State University, Drake University, Indiana State University, Purdue Entomology, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IN DNR), and the Indiana Chapter of the Ruffed Grouse Society.

For information about study sites, harvesting treatments, sampling design, and more, see our Study Design page and US Forest Service General Technical Report NRS-P-108, The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: A Framework For Studying Responses to Forest Management.

Resources
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, Website
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE), YouTube Playlist, Purdue Extension–Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR)
Ask an Expert: Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) Birds and Salamander Research, Video, Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube Channel
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Wildlife Responses to Timber Harvesting, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: Indiana Forestry and Wildlife, The Education Store

Charlotte Owings, Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment Project Coordinator
Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on April 4th, 2022 in Forestry, Wildlife, Woodlands | No Comments »

The effects of planting or harvesting a tree often takes time to see. What are the long-term effects on the forest ecosystem as a whole, and also on individual species within it?

A new research publication “Response of Terrestrial Salamanders to the Decade Following Timber Harvest in Hardwood Forests” by graduate research assistant/PhD candidate Alison Ochs along with associate professor of ecology and natural resources Mike Saunders and professor of wildlife science Rob Swihart examined an 11-year span at the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment to answer that question.

Why study salamander abundance? Salamanders, especially terrestrial salamanders such as

Alison holding a slimy salamander

plethodontids, are critical components of forest ecosystems and potential indicators of ecosystem changes due to their broad range, high densities and sensitivity to ecosystem changes. Salamanders rely on cool, moist conditions, which can be affected by the change in available leaf litter and coarse woody debris, as well as canopy cover.

Methods
The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment is a long-term, large-scale experimental study of forest management and its impact, which began in 2006. The 100-year project aims to find the ecological and social impacts of long-term forest management on public and private lands in Indiana and the Central Hardwood Region. The HEE features nine units located across the Morgan-Monroe and Yellowwood State Forests, which were analyzed prior to timber harvesting and the years following timber harvests. Units were assigned to utilize even-aged management, uneven aged management or as unharvested controls.

“With salamanders and other amphibians on the decline, understanding how timber harvest affects these vulnerable species is critical,” Ochs said. “Our findings suggest that timber harvesting techniques that keep some canopy cover may help prevent salamander declines, and even help protect them from drought, a concern as such extreme weather events are growing more common. These findings may be useful to land managers who hope to conduct timber management sustainably without damaging delicate ecosystems and species. Land managers particularly concerned about salamander populations may consider using methods such as shelterwood harvesting rather than more impactful clearcutting.”

Data was collected using artificial cover object grids beginning in the fall of 2007 to determine relative salamander abundance. The first harvests occurred in the winter of 2008. Data was collected in the fall (from mid-September to mid-November) and the spring (from the beginning of March to the end of April) each year through November 2014. Sampling then took place from the fall of 2015 through the spring of 2017 and paused, before resuming in March 2019.

Researchers utilized R for statistical computing and used a before-after-control-impact (BACI) design to examine the effects of harvest type on salamander captures with generalized linear mixed effects models.

Full Article>>>

Resources:
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE), Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, Website
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Wildlife Responses to Timber Harvesting, The Education Store, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources
The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: Indiana Forestry and Wildlife, The Education Store
A Moment in the Wild, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
Improving Water Quality by Protecting Sinkholes on Your Property, Video, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Question: Which salamander is this?, Got Nature? Blog, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources
Is it a Hellbender or a Mudpuppy?, Got Nature? Blog
Amphibians: Frogs, Toads, and Salamanders, Purdue Nature of Teaching

Wendy Mayer, Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


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