Got Nature? Blog

Posted on April 29th, 2024 in Alert, Disease, How To, Safety, Wildlife | No Comments »

MyDNR, Indiana’s Outdoor Newsletter: Indiana DNR has confirmed the state’s first positive case of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in LaGrange County. CWD is a fatal infectious disease, caused by a misfolded prion, that affects the nervous system in white-tailed deer. It can spread from deer-to-deer contact, bodily fluids, or through contaminated environments.CWD Map

There have been no reported cases of CWD infection in people, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that hunters strongly consider having deer tested before eating the meat. The CDC also recommends not eating meat from an animal that tests positive for CWD.

CWD has been detected in 33 states including the four bordering Indiana (Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, and Kentucky). Because CWD had been detected in Michigan near the Indiana border, a detection in LaGrange County was likely.

If you see any sick or dead wildlife, deer or otherwise, please report your observations on the DNR: Sick or Dead Wildlife Reporting page.

For more information visit DNR: Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD).

To subscribe to the newsletter visit MyDNR Email Newsletter.

Resources:
Chronic Wasting Disease, USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild White-tailed Deer, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Hunting & Trapping, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR)
Designing Hardwood Tree Plantings for Wildlife , The Education Store
Wildlife Habitat Hint: Trail Camera Tips and Tricks, Got Nature? Blog
How to Score Your White-tailed Deer, video, The Education Store
White-Tailed Deer Post Harvest Collection, video, The Education Store
Age Determination in White-tailed Deer, video, The Education Store
How to Build a Plastic Mesh Deer Exclusion Fence, The Education Store
Ask the Expert: Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Birds and Salamander Research, Purdue Extension – FNR
A Template for Your Wildlife Habitat Management Plan, The Education Store
Managing Your Woods for White-Tailed Deer, The Education Store
Deer Impact Toolbox, Got Nature? blog, Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR)

Indiana Department of Natural Resources


Purdue Landscape Report: It’s that time of year when we remind everyone to watch for spotted lanternfly (SLF) infestations. Spotted lanternfly is an invasive insect first detected in Pennsylvania in 2014, and has since spread throughout the eastern USA. Its preferred host is the invasive Tree-of-Heaven, but it also feeds on a wide range of important plant species, including grapes, walnuts, maples, and willows.

Early instar

Early instar-Photo credit Richard Gardner, Bugwood.org

Late instar

Late instar -Photo credit Richard Gardner, Bugwood.org

There are two known populations of SLF in Indiana. The first population was found in 2021 in Switzerland County, and the second population was found in Huntington County in 2022. The Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR), Division of Entomology and Plant Pathology, has launched a delimiting survey throughout the two counties to delimit its range and monitor for activity.

Egg hatch was confirmed in Huntington County and Switzerland County in mid-May at the two known sites. A few adults have been caught about one mile south of the core infestation site in Huntington; however, there are not any new infestations reported as of July 2023. IDNR employees have completed several egg scraping events at the infestation sites, removing over 16,800 egg masses so far this year. That’s over 672,000 eggs!

Adult-rest & late instar

Adult-rest & late instar -Photo credit Richard Gardner, Bugwood.org

Adult Spotted lanternfly

Adult Spotted lanternfly Photo credit-Rebekah D. Wallace, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org

Finding this invasive insect early is crucial to preventing its spread as long as possible. Currently, SLF nymphs are in their 1st-3rd instar, so watch for small, black, white-spotted bugs on Tree-of-Heaven. Later instars are black and red with white spots. The adults are about 1 inch long, with very brightly colored wings. The forewings are light brown with black spots, and the underwings are a striking red and black, with white band in between the red and black. When at rest, the adult SLFs appear light pinkish-grey.

Report any suspect findings at https://ag.purdue.edu/reportinvasive/

To view this full article and other Purdue Landscape Report articles, please visit Purdue Landscape Report.

Subscribe and receive the newsletter: Purdue Landscape Report Newsletter.

Resources:
The Purdue Landscape Report
Spotted Lanternfly, Indiana Department of Natural Resources Entomology
Spotted Lanternfly Found in Indiana, Purdue Landscape Report
Invasive plants: impact on environment and people, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Woodland Management Moment: Invasive Species Control Process, Video, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube Channel
Invasive Species, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
What are invasive species and why should I care?, Got Nature? Blog, Purdue Extension – FNR
Report Invasive, Purdue College of Agriculture – Entomology

Alicia Kelley, Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) Coordinator
Purdue Extension – Entomology


Posted on April 10th, 2024 in Alert, Disease, Forestry, Plants, Wildlife, Woodlands | No Comments »

Purdue Landscape Report: I think white pines are beautiful trees, especially at maturity, and they have the added advantage that they are one of the few conifers that don’t try to kill you with their needles. Besides working with the foliage, have you ever had to “rescue” a child who climbed too high in a spike-infested deathtrap of an evergreen? Did you develop the rashes to prove it? Not with a white pine!

My kids haven’t had the chance to climb a mature white pine. Many seem to decline at about 15-20ft. We have been describing this issue as white pine decline, but it isn’t entirely easy to explain. There are a number of factors that influence overall plant health and that can contribute to plant decline, but let’s focus on white pines here. White pine decline is typically attributed to root stress that can be caused by or exacerbated by high soil pH (chemically unavailable nutrients), heavy soil texture (clays), compaction, and excessive soil moisture.

Anything that affects the roots can affect the overall health of the tree, so if the roots are compromised and they cannot uptake water or nutrients, the tree will decline due to lack of nutrients or even lack of water. Needles on an affected tree will turn yellow and eventually brown and fall off prematurely (Figure 1). A symptom of white pine decline includes stems that have shriveled or desiccated bark because roots are not functioning properly and cannot pull in enough water (Figure 2).

white pine

Two white pines planted in the landscape; one is developing a general chlorotic appearance.

white pine bark

White pine showing symptoms of decline on branches where the bark is shriveled and sunken.

Depending on the severity of the root conditions, trees may take several years to decline and die, but with significant root stress, trees will decline faster. I have been seeing a lot of white pine yellowing around West Lafayette and in Indianapolis over the last year and a half and I think the odd environmental extremes have not been helping. Cycling between prolonged drought and torrential downpours lead to stress that can have lasting effects that could take years to recover from, or might be the final nail in the coffin.

There is nothing that can be done to recover from or stop decline once symptoms are observed in white pine. However, taking an approach to actively mitigate stress can help extend the life of white pine trees that are currently healthy. In many cases, one white pine will decline while other trees in the vicinity appear healthy (Fig 3, 4). Removal of symptomatic trees is important because stressed trees often attract bark beetles which can spread to the remaining healthy trees.

Another point: not every tree is going to respond the same way at the same location. Stress factors, such as a poor root system when planted, planting too deeply, or even Phytophthora root rot may have predisposed one tree to decline more than others.  Just because one tree goes down doesn’t mean they all will, so keep an eye on the others and try to improve the site conditions where practical.

white pine

A singular white pine amidst a windbreak showing symptoms of white pine decline.

white pine

View same tree from the other side of the windbreak.

To view this full article and other Purdue Landscape Report articles, please visit Purdue Landscape Report.

Subscribe and receive the newsletter: Purdue Landscape Report Newsletter.

Resources:
Root Rot in Landscape Plants, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Dead Man’s Fingers, Purdue Landscape Report
ID That Tree Fall Color: Sugar Maple, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube Channel
ID That Tree Fall Color Edition: Black Gum, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
An Introduction to Trees of Indiana, The Education Store
Autumn Highlights Tour – South Campus, Purdue Arboretum Explorer
Subscribe, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Tree Defect Identification, The Education Store
Tree Wound and Healing, Got Nature? Blog, Purdue Extension – FNR
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store
Ask an Expert: Tree Selection and Planting, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube playlist
ID That Tree, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube playlist
Invasive Species, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Report Invasive Species, Purdue Invasive Species
Find an Arborist, International Society of Arboriculture

John Bonkowski, Plant Disease Diagnostician
Departments of Botany & Plant Pathology


Posted on April 9th, 2024 in Alert, Forestry, How To, Wildlife | No Comments »

Wild Bulletin, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Fish and Wildlife: March is the beginning of peak nesting season for Indiana’s state-endangered trumpeter swan. During the nesting season, it is possible to see trumpeter swans in the northern third of the state, especiallymute swan Lake, Laporte, Kosciusko, LaGrange, Noble, Steuben, and St. Joseph counties, where they have ample habitat. Hunted to near extinction in the 1900s, the species has made great strides in population numbers, largely due to the passage of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Large, open bodies of shallow water with abundant aquatic plants are the preferred habitat of trumpeter swans, and there is potential to see the number of trumpeters increase in northern Indiana; however, the species’ recovery in Indiana isn’t out of the water yet.

Loss of habitat is the No. 1 reason for species decline across the globe, with the presence of invasive species being the second largest reason. Invasive mute swans throughout Indiana pose a threat to trumpeter swans. Mute swans are an aggressive bird that can negatively impact trumpeter swans through direct killing of adults and their young, outcompeting them for available nesting spaces, and destroying the vegetation on our bodies of water. Managing mute swans has been shown to be an effective method for increasing trumpeter swans in other states.

Use these helpful tips to distinguish between the native trumpeter swan and the invasive mute swan:

  • Trumpeter swans have black bills and legs. Mute swans have orange bills with black knobs.
  • Trumpeter swans hold their necks straight when swimming in water and flying. Mute swans hold their necks in an “S” shape.
  • Trumpeter swan numbers increase in winter in southwest Indiana and in the spring can be more common in the northern third of Indiana. Mute swans can occur statewide but are more common in the north.

Learn more about our endangered wildlife or find more information on mute swan management on our website.

To learn more about mute swans and their impact, please visit Indiana Department of Natural Resources: Mute Swans.

Subscribe to Wild Bulletin.

Resources:
Managing Woodlands for Birds Video, Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube Channel
Breeding Birds and Forest Management: the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment and the Central Hardwoods Region, The Education Store
The Birders’ Dozen, Profile: Baltimore Oriole, Indiana Woodland Steward
Ask An Expert, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube channel
It’s For the Birds, Indiana Yard and Garden-Purdue Consumer Horticulture
Birds and Residential Window Strikes: Tips for Prevention, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
No Room at the Inn: Suburban Backyards and Migratory Birds, Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Wildlife Responses to Timber Harvesting, The Education Store
Subscribe, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Hunting and Trapping Guide​, Indiana Department of Natural Resources

Indiana Department of Natural Resources


Wild Bulletin, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Fish and Wildlife: Our latest Fishing Guide features women anglers, responsible fishing practices, a delicious French-style walleye recipe, and the regulations you need for having a successful day fishing in Indiana’s2024 fishing guide cover waters.

You can find the free guide online or pick up a hard copy at your local license retailer.

This guide provides a summary of Indiana fishing regulations. These regulations apply only to fish that originate from or are taken from Indiana’s public waters. Fish from public waters that migrate into or from private waters are still covered by these regulations. These regulations do not apply to fish in private waters that did not originate from public waters.

This guide is not intended to be a complete digest of regulations. If you need complete versions of Indiana rules and regulations for fishing, they can be found in Indiana Code or in Indiana Administrative Code Title 312.

To view this new guide, please visit Indiana Department of Natural Resources: Fishing Guide & Regulations.

Subscribe to Wild Bulletin.

Resources:
Hybrid Striped Bass Farmed Fish Fact Sheet, The Education Store
Largemouth Bass Farmed Fish Fact Sheet, The Education Store
Seafood Basics: A Toolkit for Understanding Seafood, Nutrition, Safety and Preparation, and Sourcing, The Education Store
Walleye Farmed Fish Fact Sheet, The Education Store
Rainbow Trout Farmed Fish Fact Sheet, The Education Store
A Guide to Small-Scale Fish Processing Using Local Kitchen Facilities, The Education Store
Aquaculture Family Coloring Book Development, The Education Store
Eat Midwest Fish, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant online resource hub
Subscribe to Purdue Extension-Forestry & Natural Resources YouTube Channel, Wildlife Playlist

Indiana Department of Natural Resources


invasive carp

Fish from left to right: Threadfin Shad, Gizzard Shad, Skipjack Herring, Silver Carp (invasive carp), and Goldeye.

Wild Bulletin, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Fish and Wildlife: Spring is the time anglers return to fishing on Indiana’s lakes and rivers. Often that includes catching and using live bait. Remember to dispose of all unused bait fish properly in the trash, as invasive carp could be lurking in your bait bucket. Improperly disposing of unused bait fish in a lake or stream could potentially allow invasive species, like silver carp, to spread in Indiana waters.

Invasive carp are a select group of cyprinid fishes (minnow family) that are native to Asia. The term “invasive carp,” formerly known as “Asian carp,” collectively refers to bighead carp, silver carp, grass carp, and black carp. Each of these species was intentionally introduced into the United States for different purposes; however, all are now considered invasive nationally and in Indiana. Invasive carp compete with native species and pose a threat to Indiana’s aquatic ecosystems.

Find out more about how you can help in the fight against invasive carp at DNR: Fish & Wildlife Resources.

Subscribe to Wild Bulletin.

Resources:
Asian Carp | Purdue University Report Invasive Species
Question: Aren’t There Concerns About Consuming Asian Carp As A Food Source In Indiana Streams?
Invasive Species, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
What are invasive species and why should I care?, Got Nature? Blog, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources
Report Invasive Species, Purdue Invasive Species
Walleye Farmed Fish Fact Sheet, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Yellow Perch Farmed Fish Fact Sheet, The Education Store
A Guide to Small-Scale Fish Processing Using Local Kitchen Facilities, The Education Store
Eat Midwest Fish, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant online resource hub

Indiana Department of Natural Resources


Posted on March 25th, 2024 in Alert, Forestry, Plants, Safety, Wildlife | No Comments »

Cicada sitting on a blade of grassWRTV, Indianapolis News and Headlines: WEST LAFAYETTE — Elizabeth Long loves bugs.

And she wants you to know that this summer is going to be huge for bug lovers, thanks to the emergence of two special broods of cicadas, which hasn’t happened in more than two centuries.

“That’s really, really exciting for these periodical cicadas, these two broods that are going to be emerging this year,” said Long, a Purdue University assistant professor of entomology.

“The big deal is the fact that they will be emerging in synchrony for the first time (since 1803). It’s a really long time.”

Long has a doctorate from the University of Missouri in plant, insect and microbial sciences and specializes in managing pests and beneficial bugs on farms and orchards.

And just how much does Long love bugs?

Well, she described the big green-and-black cicadas we see every summer in Central Indiana as “cute.”

“They’re green, they have a white belly,” she said. “I think they’re very cute. They’re very clumsy, you know.”

Long said these two broods of cicadas will be emerging in southern and northern parts of Indiana for about a month starting in May, then they’re gone.

WRTV asked Long about this summer’s ridiculously rare emergence of the 17-year Brood XIII (or Brood 13) and the 13-year Brood XIX (Brood 19) cicadas.

Question: What’s so special about the cicadas we are going to see this summer?
Long: We don’t have many insects that stay underground as immatures for this long, you know. It’s I think pretty amazing. So that’s really, really exciting for these periodical cicadas, these two broods that are going to be emerging this year. The big deal is the fact that they will be emerging in synchrony for the first time (since 1803). It’s a really long time.

The main difference between the two broods is the time that they spend (before) they emerge. So one is a 13-year brood and, it’s a little confusing because… the two broods that are going to emerge are Brood 19 (Brood XIX) and Brood 13 (Brood XIII).

Brood 19, which is just the number assigned to this group that emerges, those are 13 year cicadas… Then Brood 13, which is a little bit confusing… they emerge every 17 years.

So you can see that 13-17 overlap. That’s how we’re in that coincidence with the synchrony based on the math of them emerging both at the same time this year.

It so weird that 19 is 13 (years) and 13 is (17 years). I had to read up on it to get it straight.

WRTV: No wonder you guys have to get advanced degrees to understand bugs.
Long: Everyone thinks they’re simple… I’m like, these insects, they keep it challenging.

To see the full article, please visit WRTV Indianapolis News and Headlines.

Resources:
Periodical Cicadas, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Entomology
Billions of Cicadas Are Coming This Spring; What Does That Mean for Wildlife?, Got Nature? Blog, Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR)
17 Ways to Make the Most of the 17-year Cicada Emergence, Purdue College of Agriculture
Ask an Expert: Cicada Emergence Video, Got Nature? Blog, Purdue Extension-FNR
Periodical Cicada in Indiana, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Cicada Killers, The Education Store
Purdue Cicada Tracker, Purdue Extension-Master Gardener Program
Cicada, Youth and Entomology, Purdue Extension
Indiana Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology

Vic Ryckaert, Digital Reporter
WRTV Indianapolis

Elizabeth Y. Long, Assistant Professor
Purdue University Department of Entomology


State of Indiana Executive Department of Indianapolis Proclamation, Invasive Species Awareness Week, Feb. 25-March 2, 2024.Governor Eric Holcomb has proclaimed February 25th to March 2nd as 2024 Invasive Species Awareness Week in Indiana.

This serves as an important reminder for Hoosiers to be aware and report potentially devastating invasives.

This proclamation states “invasive aquatic, riparian and terrestrial species influence the productivity, value and management of land and water resources in Indiana and the cost to prevent, monitor and control invasive species costs Indiana millions annually and after habitat destruction, invasive species are a great threat to biodiversity and threaten the survival of native plants and animals and interfere with ecosystem functions by changing processes like fire, nutrient flow and flooding”.

It continues with “invasive species impede industry, threaten agriculture, endanger human health and are becoming increasingly harder to control as a result of rapid global commercialization and human travel; and invasive species are as significant threat to almost half of the native species currently listed as federally endangered.”

As Invasive Species Awareness Week starts Sunday, February 25th, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IN DNR), Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources and the Indiana Invasive Species Council will answer any questions you may have.

For Questions:
Ask an Expert, Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources
Invasive Species – Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)
Indiana Invasive Species Council – Includes: IDNR, Purdue Department of Entomology and Professional Partners
Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area (CISMA)

Report and Learn More About Invasive Species –
Great Lakes Early Detection Network App (GLEDN) – The Center for Invasive Species & Ecosystem Health
EDDMaps – Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System
Purdue University Report Invasive Species, College of Agriculture

Check Out Our Invasive Species Videos –
Subscribe: Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube Channel
Invasive Species YouTube Video Playlist includes:

More Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube Video Series –
Woodland Management Moment:

Woodland Stewardship for Landowners:

ID That Tree:

More Resources –
FNR Extension Publications, The Education Store:

Purdue Landscape Report:

FNR Extension Got Nature? Blog:

Don’t Miss These Resources:
Episode 11 – Exploring the challenges of Invasive Species, Habitat University-Natural Resource University
What Are Invasive Species and Why Should I Care?, Purdue Extension-FNR Got Nature? Blog
Emerald Ash Borer Information Network, Purdue University and Partners
Aquatic Invasive Species, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG)
Invasive plants: impact on environment and people, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center

Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources

 


mudpuppy photo

Photo by: Indiana DNR

Wild Bulletin, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Fish and Wildlife: The Division of Fish & Wildlife asks anglers to report sightings of the mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus) to help biologists track their populations across the state. A Species of Special Concern in Indiana, this salamander inhabits the state’s lakes and streams.

Mudpuppies, like fish, live their entire lives in water, but they are more secretive and difficult to locate. During winter, mudpuppies move into shallow water and are more frequently caught by anglers. They may also be viewed from shore using a flashlight at night, while they walk along the lake bottom. Mudpuppies are not dangerous or poisonous. They can be identified by the red, fluffy gills on the back of their head, but the gills tend to lay flat against their body when they are out of the water.

If you catch a mudpuppy while fishing, please photograph it, cut your fishing line, and release the mudpuppy back into the water. Report your observation to the DNR herpetologist at HerpSurveys@dnr.IN.gov and include a clear photograph of it, the date, and the location where it was found. The DNR appreciates your help tracking this unique salamander.

To learn more please visit DNR: Amphibians and Reptiles.

Subscribe to Wild Bulletin.

Resources:
Researchers Discover Young Hellbender in Blue River, Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources News & Stories
Help the Hellbender, North America’s Giant Salamander, The Education Store
Help the Hellbender, Purdue College of Agriculture
Question: Which salamander is this?, Got Nature? Blog, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources
Is it a Hellbender or a Mudpuppy?, Got Nature? Blog
Amphibians: Frogs, Toads, and Salamanders, Purdue Nature of Teaching
A Moment in the Wild, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources
Help the Hellbender, Playlist & Website
The Nature of Teaching: Adaptations for Aquatic Amphibians, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Hellbenders Rock!, The Education Store

Indiana Department of Natural Resources


Posted on December 8th, 2023 in Alert, Disease, How To, Safety, Wildlife | No Comments »

Wild Bulletin, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Fish and Wildlife: Did you know that wild game shot with lead ammunition can sometimes contain lead fragments all the way to the dinner table? Adopting different shot placement and butchering techniques can help alleviate the problem.

x-ray crop image

An X-ray of lead ingested by an animal.

When shooting: Avoid shooting animals in heavily boned areas, such as the front shoulders, as this is more likely to cause bullet fragmentation. Instead, shoot animals in softer tissue, such as around the heart and lungs, to decrease fragmentation.

When butchering: Carefully observe the wound channel in the animal and generously trim away any meat that shows bullet trauma. This will help keep fragments out of your finished meat product. Properly dispose of your trimmed meat by sending it to the local landfill or burying it on private property.

Looking for another way for you and your family to avoid ingesting lead fragments? Talk to your local retailer about finding a nontoxic ammunition that’s right for you.

To learn more please visit DNR: Effects of lead on wildlife.

Subscribe to Wild Bulletin.

Resources:
Hunting Guide for 2023-2024, Indiana Department of Natural Resources
How to Score Your White-tailed Deer, video, The Education Store, Purdue Extension Resource Center
White-Tailed Deer Post Harvest Collection, video, The Education Store
Age Determination in White-tailed Deer, video, The Education Store
How to Build a Plastic Mesh Deer Exclusion Fence, The Education Store
Managing Your Woods for White-Tailed Deer, The Education Store
Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild White-tailed Deer, The Education Store
Help With Wild Turkey Populations, Video, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
Turkey Brood Reporting, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)
Wild Turkey, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)
Wild Turkey Hunting Biology and Management, Indian Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)
Subscribe to Purdue Extension-Forestry & Natural Resources YouTube Channel, Wildlife Playlist

Indiana Department of Natural Resources


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