Got Nature? Blog

Wood LogsCheck out the new newsletter posts available by visiting the Indiana Woodland Steward website. Stay current in the world of forestry and receive their free e-newsletter by subscribing at IWS Subscribe.

Highlights from the current Newsletter include:

  • 2021 Indiana Consulting Foresters Stumpage Timber Price Report
    “This report is provided annually and is intended to be used as a general indicator of timber stumpage prices and activity in Indiana. There are many factors that determine the price…”
  • Best Management Practices on Indiana’s State Forests
    By Duane McCoy
    “Starting in the early-1990s, the Indiana Division of Forestry (DoF) worked with the Woodland Steward, private woodland owners, non-government organizations, and many state and federal government agencies to develop…”
  • Ecological Restoration on the Hoosier National Forest
    By Marion Mason and Travis Swaim
    “Disturbance has always influenced our forests. During the Pleistocene, temperate zone forests were much more open than the dark, closed forests of today and included sun-loving herbaceous plants interspersed among the trees. The openness was primarily due to…”
  • Remote Sensing, Digital Tech Advance Tools for Precision Forestry
    By Elizabeth K. Gardner
    “Powerful partnerships among Purdue University’s colleges of agriculture, engineering and science will advance digital forestry tools to save time, money and achieve a deeper understanding of an important natural resource…”
  • The Birders’ Dozen, Profile: Baltimore Oriole
    Dr. Jessica Outcalt, consulting bird biologist
    Welcome to the Birders’ Dozen! Over the next several issues, we are going to continue introducing the bird species from Forestry for the Birds. The Birders’ Dozen are forest birds that can…”
  • Landowners Needed for Survey of Invasive Removal Practices and Expenditures
    “The Department of Forestry and Natural Resources at Purdue University has created a survey to find out more about…”
  • Ask the Steward
    By Dan Ernst
    “Question: I planted my first 300 tree seedlings this spring and have my weed control applied. Do I need to put tree tubes on them?”

The Indiana Woodland Steward Newsletter is a resource that’s full of a variety of valuable information to foresters, woodland owners, timber marketing specialists, woodland enthusiasts and wildlife enthusiasts. The Indiana Woodland Steward Institute is an entity made from 11 organizations within the state including Purdue UniversityIndiana DNR, and Indiana Hardwood Lumbermen’s Association, that works to promote best usage practices of Indiana’s woodland resources through their Woodland Steward publication.

Resources
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Wildlife Responses to Timber Harvesting, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store
Invasive plants: impact on environment and people, The Education Store
Managing Your Woods for White-Tailed Deer, The Education Store
Birdfeeder tips, The National Audubon Society
Birds and Residential Window Strikes: Tips for Prevention, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Breeding Birds and Forest Management: the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment and the Central Hardwoods Region, The Education Store
Managing Woodlands for Birds Video, Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
Subscribe: Deer, Forest Management, Invasive Species and many other videos, Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel

Dan McGuckin, President
Indiana Woodland Steward

Dr. Brian MacGowan, Extension Wildlife Specialist
Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Purdue University


The classic and trusted book “Fifty Common Trees of Indiana” by T.E. Shaw was published in 1956 as a user-friendly guide to local species.  Nearly 70 years later, theBasswood line drawing. publication has been updated through a joint effort by the Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Indiana 4-H, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and reintroduced as “An Introduction to Trees of Indiana.”

The full publication is available for download for $7 in the Purdue Extension Education Store. The field guide helps identify common Indiana woodlot trees.

Each week, the Intro to Trees of Indiana web series will offer a sneak peek at one species from the book, paired with an ID That Tree video from Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee to help visualize each species as it stands in the woods. Threats to species health as well as also insight into the wood provided by the species, will be provided through additional resources as well as the Hardwoods of the Central Midwest exhibit of the Purdue Arboretum, if available.

This week, we introduce the basswood or Tilia Americana.

The American basswood, which is also called linden, is commonly identified by its simple heart-shaped leaves with finely toothed margins, flat bark with long running lines up and down the trees, and possibly a ring of sprouts originating from the base of the tree. The clusters of small, nutlike seeds (⅓-inch in diameter)
are attached by a stem to a leaflike wing.basswood wood panels from highest to lowest grade

This species is often found on moist sites, deep, loamy soils, with its range stretching from the Great Plains east and from southern Canada through northern Arkansas, Kentucky and the mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee.

With heights reaching 70 to 80 feet tall, basswood can offer good shade. It also offers good flowering for bees. This species has a light colored, fine-grained wood varying from a white color to a very light brown or flesh color.

Due to its weight and stability, basswood has historically been used to make Venetian blinds and key stock in pianos. It also is a preferred species for carving, including items like hunting decoys, etc.

Full article also can be viewed with Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources News: Trees of Indiana: American Basswood.

Other Resources
Basswood – Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series
Hardwoods of Central Indiana: American Basswood
Fifty Trees of the Midwest app for the iPhone
Native Trees of the Midwest
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest
ID That Tree YouTube playlist
Woodland Management Moment YouTube playlist
Investing in Indiana Woodlands
Forest Improvement Handbook

Wendy Mayer, FNR Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


The classic and trusted book “Fifty Common Trees of Indiana” by T.E. Shaw was published in 1956 as a user-friendly guide to local species.  Nearly 70 years later, the publication has been updated through a joint effort by the Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Indiana 4-H, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and reintroduced as “An Introduction to Trees of Indiana.”

The full publication is available for download for $7 in the Purdue Extension Education Store. The field guide helps identify common Indiana woodlot trees.

Large Tooth Aspen line drawingEach week, the Intro to Trees of Indiana web series will offer a sneak peek at one species from the book, paired with an ID That Tree video from Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee to help visualize each species as it stands in the woods. Threats to species health as well as also insight into the wood provided by the species, will be provided through additional resources as well as the Hardwoods of the Central Midwest exhibit of the Purdue Arboretum, if available.

This week, we introduce the quaking aspen or populus tremuloides.

The quaking aspen, also known as the trembling aspen, is adaptable to a variety of soils, ranging from moist loamy sands and clay, but it is shade intolerant. It is often found on the edge of woodlands or where the site has been disturbed, giving it access to full sunlight.

This species is identifiable by its whitish to grayish bark with dark spots where the branches come out of the trunk. It has small rounded leaves with very small teeth along the margin. Like most aspens, it has long flat leaf steams that are known to flutter in the wind.

Quaking aspen is found int he northern part of the state of Indiana. This species is found from Nefoundland through Alaska in the West, and as far south as Arizona. In the Midwest, it ranges south to northeastern Iowa, northern Illinois and Pennsylvania. It is also found in some scattered areas in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the most widely distributed tree in the United States.

According to the Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series, aspen is one of our lightest woods with a 12 percent moisture content and a weight of 26 to 27 pounds per cubic foot. It was at one time relegated to the pulp and paper industry as a weed tree, however it is now a favored species for the manufacturer of panel boards.

Full article also can be viewed with Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources News: Trees of Indiana: Quaking Aspen.

Other Resources
Aspen – Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series
Why Fall Color Is Sometimes a Dud – Purdue Landscape Report
Fifty Trees of the Midwest app for the iPhone
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store
ID That Tree YouTube playlist
Woodland Management Moment YouTube playlist
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook , The Education Store

Wendy Mayer, FNR Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

 


When Lindsey PurcellMatt Ginzel and Cliff Sadof began working on a research grant for Rotam North America regarding the use of trunk-injected emamectin benzoate to manage emerald ash borer, they set out to compare three commercially available insecticide injection systems.

Lindsey Purcell headshotThey looked at the variance in number of injection points, whether or not ports were plugged and more, while also conducting a long-term study examining the difference in protection provided by spring and fall injections.

“We know that Emamectin benzoate is an excellent tool for protecting ash trees,” Sadof explained. “The trick is to get it into the tree before the tree has exhibited substantial decline. After the tree’s vascular tissue has been compromised, it becomes less able to transport the insecticide through the phloem into the canopy where it can kill leaves.”

A publication detailing the results of the research will be published soon in an article titled “Diffusion and Efficacy of Trunk-injected Emamectin Benzoate to Manage Emerald Ash Borer.”

Sadof and Ginzel also published a separate article “Factors influencing efficacy of an area-wide pest management program in three urban forests” in Urban Forestry and Urban Greening in March 2021, which details how early applications of insecticide can help with area wide protection of ash trees.

Due to his involvement in the Rotam grant, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and SymTree Science owner Terry Marie Braniecki asked Purcell if he would contribute his expertise and time as a plant healthcare subject matter expert toward PNNL’s better, more environmentally sensitive and economical delivery solution for their tree-health products.

After two years of research and development sponsored by Elemental Enzymes, and several iterations of prototypes made on 3D printers, the patented device, designed by the team of PNNL staff, Purdue faculty and private companies, is currently being beta tested by the industry with select distributors for commercial use.

“There are several similar devices out in the plant health care industry, but SymTree Science and Elemental Enzyme asked me what do you use, what do you like to use and can we make something better,” Purcell said. “Out of research always comes additional research and innovation, so I said here’s what I have in mind and PNNL’s engineers took my input and made it happen. It was initially made to deliver pesticides. However, it can also be used for micronutrient packages to correct deficiencies in the tree or applied for emerald ash borer control. Additionally, a product is in development for dates and coconut palms, which have major pest problems that are hard to control. These chemical injections can help the tree proactively and reactively to manage current infestations, but also act to prevent infestation.”

The reusable injection device works in conjunction with prepackaged recyclable injectors, which are installed directly into the tree vascular system at the root flare. If a tree is translocating efficiently, chemicals can be fully injected in minutes.

Base of tree showing roots and injection set up, Lindsey Purcell's Microinjector.“The device is user friendly, it is simple and it protects the applicator because they have little to no exposure to chemicals and the environment has no exposure to chemicals,” Purcell explained. “It is very focused on the tree. It is not like you are broadcast spraying, where chemicals are vulnerable to drift. It is very safe for the environment and the people around it.”

On the PNNL website, the device, its design and functionality are described as follows:
“The Tree Micro-Injector delivers nutrition, pesticides and fungicides faster and easier than similar commercially available injectors. The device resembles a laboratory syringe, with an exterior housing holding a uniquely designed compressible pod. The housing and pod are made of polypropylene, a versatile, recyclable materials. An internal steel spring holds the pod in place and allows it to be precisely compressed to eject a liquid formulation through the housing’s nozzle. The single-use disposable pod can be prefilled with a variety of specialty formulations, such as nutrition fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides or plant growth regulators.”

Purcell worked in conjunction with Kevin Simmons, Allan Tuan, Dustin Clelland, Stan Owsley and David Long from PNNL; as well as Terry Marie Braniecki, owner of Symtree Science LLC; and Stacie Schumer, product manager at Elemental Enzymes, on the project.

The group was recognized for their work with the Excellence in Technology Transfer Award presented by the 2022 Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer. The Excellence in Technology Transfer Award recognizes employees of FLC member laboratories and non-laboratory staff who have accomplished outstanding work in the process of transferring federally developed technology. The award is based on contributions during the past 10 years.

The annual FLC awards are among the most reputed honors in the technology transfer field. PNNL has received 98 FLC awards since the program’s inception in 1984, including three in 2022. In addition to the injector, PNNL developed an airport security device that scans passengers’ shoes, which earned the Interagency Partnership Award; and a home energy efficiency assessment tool, which received the FLC Impact Award.

The FLC winners will be recognized at the 2022 FLC national meeting on April 6 in Cleveland, Ohio.

Full Article>>>

Resources:
Find an Arborist, Trees are Good
Tree wounds and healing, Got Nature? Blog
Ask an Expert: Tree Selection and Planting, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube Channel
Planting Your Tree Part 1: Choosing Your Tree, Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube Channel
Tree Installation: Process and Practices, The Education Store
Tree Pruning Essentials, The Education Store
Subscribe to Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube Channel

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resource

Wendy Mayer, Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resource


Dr. Henry QuesadaHenry Quesada, FNR professor, assistant director of Extension and Agriculture & Natural Resources (ANR) Program Leader, obtained a BS in Industrial Production Engineering from the Costa Rica Institute of Technology (Costa Rica TEC). He worked for a commercial printing company before coming to Purdue as MS and PhD student in the Department of Forestry and Natural Resources. After completing his graduate education, Henry worked as a faculty member for Costa Rica TEC where he focused on undergraduate teaching and engagement with industry and communities. In 2008 Henry joined the Department of Sustainable Biomaterials at Virginia Tech as an extension specialist. At Virginia Tech, Henry developed a national extension program to increase the utilization of renewable materials to mitigate climate change, improve industry competitiveness and enhance livelihoods in rural communities. At Purdue, Henry is the ANR Program Leader where his main responsibilities are to provide leadership, strengthen and build on and off-campus relationships, articulate and communicate the ARN program’s vision, and to create a collaborative environment that fosters a culture of innovation.

“At Virginia Tech, I was able to connect with the forestry industry and communities and helped support initiatives locally, regionally and nationally. In my new position at Purdue, I am excited to continue to explore innovations and partnerships in Indiana, a state with a diverse agriculture and lumber industry from row crops to local foods to livestock to hardwoods. I am an entrepreneur at heart and believe we have many opportunities to work with Indiana farmers to identify and reach new markets with existing and new products.”

View more about Dr. Henry Quesada: Purdue Extension News-New ANR Program Leader joins Purdue Extension.

Resources:
Agriculture & Natural Resources, Purdue Extension
Wood Products, Area of Interest, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR)
Subscribe: Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Hardwood & Woodland Upcoming Events, Purdue Extension FNR

Henry Quesada, FNR Professor, Assistant Directory of Extension and ANR Program Leader
Purdue Extension

Diana Evans, Extension and Web Communication Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on September 20th, 2021 in Forestry, Wood Products/Manufacturing, Woodlands | No Comments »

South Bend Tribune: Look up the next time you pass a pine tree in Michiana — chances are it’s loaded with cones.

Conditions this season are ripe for an abundance of these woody reproductive organs of pine trees, and they’ll soon fall to the ground in both urban and forested areas.

Why so many? Lindsey A. Purcell, urban forestry specialist with Purdue University’s Forestry and Natural Resources Department, said some of the abundance could be the natural two-year, cone-producing cycle of conifers.

One year there’s few, if any, cones, while the following year the trees go into a seed-producing frenzy.

But more pine cones can also mean the trees are producing more reproductive seeds as a way to deal with the stress of a dry or changing climate.

It’s a matter of survival: The tougher, drier the season, the stronger the urge for the trees to reproduce through seeds so the species can survive.

“Drought conditions creates stress, and a lack of water seems to be an important stressor,” Purcell said.

Central Indiana has drought conditions this season, but northern Indiana areas near South Bend have fared better.

Trees have male and female cones. The males produce the pollen, while the female cones are often seen in the upper portions of conifers and hold the seeds that propagate the species.

Once pollinated, the tree’s female cones develop as the seeds mature, and they are usually conical or round-shaped. The individual plates on the cones, known as scales, keep the seeds safe from weather extremes and hungry animals until it’s warm and dry enough to release them to grow into new trees.

The cones are the protective coatings for the seeds, shielding them from water, wind and harsh conditions.

Most pine cone seeds are edible and not poisonous, but experts say Norfolk Island pine and yew trees are not true pine trees and both are toxic and should be avoided.

Full Article >>>

Resources:
Find an Arborist, Trees are Good
Tree wounds and healing, Got Nature? Blog
Ask an Expert: Tree Selection and Planting, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube Channel
Planting Your Tree Part 1: Choosing Your Tree, Purdue extension-FNR YouTube Channel
Tree Installation: Process and Practices, The Education Store
Tree Pruning Essentials, The Education Store

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Greg Swiercz, Writer
South Bend Tribune

Facebook PhotoLet the Sun Shine Indiana is a new Facebook page that has resources for landowners and natural resource managers along with woodland lovers. With commitments to sustain the health and diversity of our forests, grasslands and wildlife for future generations, this collaboration will be sharing educational data, problem-solving and management practices.

This collaboration is made up of scientists, natural resource managers, communication specialists, foresters, wildlife biologists, etc. from a variety of organizations, universities and agencies across Indiana, who share a common goal – restore southern Indiana’s open oak woodlands – because with the sun comes life.

Resources:
ID That Tree, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Woodland Stewardship for Landowners, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension Resource Center
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store

Marion Mason, Public Affairs Specialist, Forest Service
Hoosier National Forest

 


This latest cold snap could kill some emerald ash borer populations in northern states like Minnesota. But in warmer states like Indiana, the invasive borer is one resilient bug.

“These guys are pretty good at burrowing in underneath the bark of the tree and that tree helps to insulate them from the bulk of the bad weather,” says Megan Abraham, director of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Division of Entomology and Plant Pathology.

As a result, Abraham says it takes a long cold spell with really cold temperatures to kill off an emerald ash borer beetle. According to Purdue University, it would have to get down to about minus 28 degrees.

Kerry Bridges is an arborist with Tree Guy Incorporated in Bloomington. He says the emerald ash borer is not only used to Indiana winters, but it’s survived in much colder areas like Canada.

emeral Ash Borer

An adult emerald ash borer feeds off a leaf. (Purdue University Department of Entomology photo/John Obermeyer)

“I don’t foresee significant change or restriction of that bug’s reproduction and spread,” Bridges says.

READ MORE: ‘Tree Doctor’ App To Help Homeowners With Emerald Ash Borer

What’s more, emerald ash borer and some other insects have a unique way of keeping warm.

Purdue entomologist Cliff Sadof says the reason your nose starts to run when it’s cold out is because your body is trying to keep it from freezing. Mixing mucus with water lowers the freezing point. Sadof says insects like the emerald ash borer do something similar.

“But they are changing the composition of the fluids inside their body, so they act like antifreezes,” he says.

According to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, the emerald ash borer has devastated ash trees in every county in the state. Bridges encourages homeowners that are having problems with emerald ash borer to keep treating their trees…

For full article view:
How The Emerald Ash Borer Will Survive Indiana’s Cold Snap, Indiana Public Media News from WFIU Public Radio and WTIU Public Television, Indiana University, written by Rebecca.

 

Resources
New Hope for Fighting Ash Borer, Got Nature? Purdue Extension-FNR
Invasive Pest Species: Tools for Staging and Managing EAB in the Urban Forest, Got Nature?
Emerald Ash Borer, Purdue Extension-Entomology
Emerald Ash Borer Cost Calculator – Purdue Extension Entomology

WFIU Public Radio and WTIU Public Television
Indiana University


Emerald Ash BorersImidacloprid, the active ingredient works by killing adults when they feed in the summer before they lay eggs. It slowly kills the two youngest stages of grubs that feed beneath the bark. The later and larger two stages are not killed. Material applied in the fall does not start killing beetles til spring. It takes twice the dose in the fall to get the same effect as a spring application. Trees with a trunk diameter of >20 inches at 4.5 ft above the ground can’t be controlled with imidacloprid.

So if your trees are starting to die I would suggest you skip the fall application of imidacloprid and switch to a professional injection of emamectin benzoate. See Protecting Ash Trees with Insecticides (pdf), Purdue Extension Emerald Ash Borer, for more information.

Cliff Sadof, Coordinator of Extension
Purdue University Department of Entomology

Resources:
What to do about emerald ash borer, Got Nature?, Purdue Extension-FNR
Emerald Ash Borer, Purdue Extension-Entomology
EAB research: Saving trees early less costly than replacing them, Purdue Agriculture News

 


Costs and Returns of Producing Hops in Established Tree PlantationsRapid growth in the craft brewing industry has created an opportunity for Hoosier farmers to start growing hops. Hops are the female flowers (also called cones) from the hop plant (Humulus lupulus). This high-value, perennial crop is used to flavor and stabilize beer. Now available in a free download is a new publication with a study focusing on growing hops along the fence lines of newly established forest stands. This publication titled Costs and Returns of Producing Hops in Established Tree Plantations is the first of two publications that analyzes the economic opportunities in forest farming for Indiana forest plantation owners. The economic analysis presented in this article is developed for two hops varieties, ‘Cascade’ and ‘Comet’, based on marketability and presumed adaption to low sunlight, respectively.

Additional Resources:
Costs and Returns of Producing Wild-Simulated Ginseng in Established Tree Plantations, The Education Store, Purdue Extension
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store
The Nature of Teaching, Lesson Plans K-12, Purdue Extension
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Sustaining Our Oak-Hickory Forests, The Education Store
Tree Pruning: What Do Trees Think?, The Education Store

Kim Ha, Research Assistant
Purdue Agricultural Economics

Other contributing authors: Dr. Shadi Atallah, Tamara Benjamin, Dr. Lori Hoagland, Lenny Farlee and Dr. Keith Woeste.


Got Nature?

Recent Posts

Archives