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An Introduction to Trees of Indiana publication, 4-H-15-80A

Trees are one of Indiana’s great natural resources. Professor T.E. Shaw, one of the first Indiana Extension foresters, wanted to make sure young Hoosiers, beginners in the field of forestry and tree enthusiasts alike had an educational resource to help them learn the names and identify local trees.

Shaw updated Charles C. Deam’s highly technical Trees of Indiana, which was first published in 1911, putting out an update for the 4-H forestry handbook in 1949. A second edition came out in 1950 and another revision was completed just before Shaw’s death in 1956 and published as “Fifty Common Trees of Indiana” through the Indiana Department of Conservation.

The publication, which utilizes simple methods and user-friendly language, has become a common resource many place in their backpacks before beginning an outdoor adventure.

The 1956 publication has been used for decades by 4-H, FFA and many other classroom and outdoor education programs as an introduction to tree identification for Indiana youth. Nearly 70 years later, the publication will be reintroduced as “An Introduction to Trees of Indiana,” with additional trees added to the resource along with updates of the original species. An Introduction to Trees of Indiana was a collaboration of experts from the Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR), Indiana 4-H Youth Development and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources.

Add your copy of this new book to your library by visiting the Purdue Extension resource center, The Education Store: An Introduction to Trees of Indiana, product code: 4-H-15-80A.

Other resources:
Fifty Trees of the Midwest App for the iPhone, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store
ID That Tree, Playlist, Subscribe to Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store

Tony Carrell, 4-H Youth Development Extension Specialist
Purdue Extension 4-H Youth Development

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


On this edition of ID That Tree, Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee shows you the differences between two non-native species commonly found in Indiana in decorative capacities, and especially during the holiday season, firs and spruces. Learn the differences in needles, cones and twigs so you can tell these species apart.

If you have any questions regarding wildlife, trees, forest management, wood products, natural resource planning or other natural resource topics, feel free to contact us by using our Ask an Expert web page.

Resources:
ID That Tree, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension Resource Center
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store
Pin Oak, Native Trees of Indiana River Walk, Purdue Fort Wayne

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


It’s not holly, but it will help you keep holiday cheer long into the winter, meet Winterberry. On this edition of ID That Tree, Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee explains the difference between winterberry and holly, as well as how to identify this deciduous plant.

If you have any questions regarding wildlife, trees, forest management, wood products, natural resource planning or other natural resource topics, feel free to contact us by using our Ask an Expert web page.

Resources:
ID That Tree, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension Resource Center
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store
Pin Oak, Native Trees of Indiana River Walk, Purdue Fort Wayne

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


On this edition of ID That Tree, meet umbrella magnolia, a small tree easily identified by the clusters of long simple leaves at the end of the twigs, which form an umbrella shape, and by its beautiful white blossoms in the spring.

If you have any questions regarding wildlife, trees, forest management, wood products, natural resource planning or other natural resource topics, feel free to contact us by using our Ask an Expert web page.

Resources:
ID That Tree, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension Resource Center
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store
Pin Oak, Native Trees of Indiana River Walk, Purdue Fort Wayne

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on November 22nd, 2021 in Forestry, How To, Woodland Management Moment, Woodlands | No Comments »

Plastic mesh deer fence protecting hardwood seedlings.Hardwood Tree Improvement & Regeneration Center (HTIRC) Newsletter: USDA conservation programs provide technical and financial incentives for landowners to install and maintain conservation practices, including tree plantations. They are an important tool to help encourage landowners to make an investment in long-term activities like planting hardwood trees. Research across the eastern US, including work done by the HTIRC, demonstrates that deer browse can be one of the most significant barriers to establishment of a successful tree plantings. Deer may increase mortality, but more often they are preventing planted or naturally regenerating trees from growing in height due to repeated browsing. This damage can also deform trees, resulting in poor stem form and lower potential log quality. Plantations where deer selectively browse desirable species may lose important species like oaks due to overtopping by less favored, and therefore less browsed, species that become free to grow. Reducing the damage done by deer browse is an important, and in many locations the most critical step in successful tree planting establishment in many areas across the eastern US.

One of the primary purposes for these conservation tree plantings is developing forest wildlife habitat, but to successfully establish that habitat may require excluding deer for a few years, until the trees are tall enough to continue growing past the deer browse damage. Fortunately, many state Natural Resource Conservation Service offices are recognizing the impact that deer browse is having on establishing successful conservation tree plantings. To address this barrier to successfully establishing tree plantings and natural regeneration, new scenarios are being added to the Tree and Shrub Establishment practice:

    • The “Planted Area with Protection” scenario provides cost assistance for tree and shrub planting and placement of a temporary perimeter fence to exclude deer until trees have grown above the height of deer browsing.
    • The “Regeneration Area with Protection” scenario provides cost assistance for placement of a temporary fence to protect natural regeneration of tree and shrub species.
    • Increased cost assistance payments may be available to help offset some of the additional cost a deer exclusion fence adds to a planting project. States may have differing cost assistance rates and practice requirements. These and other additions to the NRCS tree planting practices provide landowners and natural resource managers effective tools to establish tree plantings that can produce high quality hardwood trees in the future. Check with your local foresters and NRCS offices to see if this practice is available in your area and details on payment rates and requirements. If the practice is not available, work with your local resource management contacts to request addition of this practice for your area in the future.

The HTIRC has supported this fencing practice through research and demonstration plantings that have showcased the benefits deer exclusion fencing can provide for timely establishment and timber quality development in hardwood plantings.

Full article > > >

Resources:
Woodland Stewardship For Landowners, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
Woodland Management Moment, Purdue Extension – FNR Playlist
A Woodland Management Moment – Deer Fencing, Purdue Extension – FNR Video
Wildlife Habitat Hint: Exclusion Cage, Purdue Extension – FNR Video
How to Build a Plastic Mesh Deer Exclusion Fence, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Ask An Expert: Handling Harvested Deer, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store
Finding help from a professional forester, Indiana Forestry & Woodland Owners Association

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Hardwood Tree Improvement & Regeneration Center (HTIRC)
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


In this episode of ID That Tree, Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee introduces the blue ash. This native Indiana ash species can be differentiated from other members of the ash family by corky edges on the twig, more branches lower on the stem and a platy, ashy gray bark.

If you have any questions regarding wildlife, trees, forest management, wood products, natural resource planning or other natural resource topics, feel free to contact us by using our Ask an Expert web page.

Resources:
ID That Tree, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources Youtube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR Youtube Channel
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension Resource Center
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on October 25th, 2021 in Forests and Street Trees, Wildlife, Woodlands | No Comments »

In this edition of ID That Tree, meet the Eastern Hop Hornbeam, so named because of its fruit which resembles hops. This small, native, shade tolerant tree also is identifiable by its simply finely toothed leaves on thin twigs as well as its brown flaky bark. Learn how to separate it from its cousin American Hornbeam inside.

If you have any questions regarding wildlife, trees, forest management, wood products, natural resource planning or other natural resource topics, feel free to contact us by using our Ask an Expert web page.

Resources:
ID That Tree, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources Youtube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR Youtube Channel
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension Resource Center
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


This native tree comes with its own defense system in very large thorns on the stems and trunk. Meet the honey locust. Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee explains that large, long yellow seed pods that resemble bean pods, the option of single or doubly compound leaves on the same tree and smooth gray bark also help identify this species.

If you have any questions regarding wildlife, trees, forest management, wood products, natural resource planning or other natural resource topics, feel free to contact us by using our Ask an Expert web page.

Resources:
ID That Tree, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources Youtube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR Youtube Channel
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension Resource Center
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


If you have ever noticed acorns so numerous that you could not take a step without crushing several, you may be asking the question, “why are there so many acorns?” Some answers to this question can be found in the physiology and ecology of trees and their relationship to wildlife. Oaks and several other tree species occasionally produce enormous crops of seed. This is called “masting” or “mast events”. These events are periodic. In the case of many oak species, a large mast event may happen every two to five years, depending on the species of oak and several other factors. Masting events may be preceded and followed by small or moderate acorn crops, or complete crop failures in some cases. Why does this irregular seed production happen? These events may be tied to several aspects of the life of oaks.Picture of immature acorns from a red oak

First, the production of a huge volume of a large seed like an acorn requires a lot of resources from the tree. This level of production may not be possible for the tree every year. Trees allocate energy to several different functions, so committing large amounts of energy to one area could mean deficits in others. This may mean there are advantages for the tree to produce occasional, rather than annual, mastings.

Second, weather does not always cooperate to provide the conditions for a bumper acorn crop. Unfavorable weather during pollination and seed development periods can result in reduced production of acorns. Late spring freezes, extremely high temperatures, summer droughts and other weather stresses can reduce acorn pollination and production.

Third, predation by seed-eaters like squirrels, deer, turkey and even weevil larvae can greatly reduce the number of viable acorns. It may take a very large acorn crop to have many acorns escape from the numerous species that depend on acorns for food.

Picture of chestnut oak acorns

This irregular cycle of large crops can be beneficial for the oaks by overwhelming the seed eaters. Populations of wildlife that depend on acorns may eat most of the seed during normal seed crops, but may not be able to utilize all the seed produced during a masting. This surplus seed is available produce the next generation of oak seedlings. 

However, some species will produce copious amounts of the mast if the developmental age of the tree is favorable, regardless of conditions. 

Acorn production can vary by species and individual trees across the oak family, but masting is a way this important group of trees can continue to be a part or our Midwestern landscape.

Resources:
Woodland Management Moment: Direct Seeding, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube Channel
Ask an Expert: Tree Selection and Planting, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube Channel
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Tree Pruning Essentials, The Education Store

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue Extension- Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on September 28th, 2021 in Forestry, Forests and Street Trees, Wildlife, Woodlands | No Comments »

On this edition of ID That Tree, Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee introduces you to one of our common bottomland trees, the Eastern Cottonwood. This tree stands out for its triangular or delta shaped leaves, often with prominent teeth along the edges, which extend from long flattened leaf stems. This native tree is named for its early season fruit, which is a little tuft of white hairs that holds a small seed that is produced in large quantities and often blown far from the parent tree.

If you have any questions regarding wildlife, trees, forest management, wood products, natural resource planning or other natural resource topics, feel free to contact us by using our Ask an Expert web page.

Resources:
ID That Tree, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources Youtube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR Youtube Channel
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store, Purdue Extension Resource Center
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


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