Got Nature? Blog

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Have you taken an Indiana Master Naturalist course and want to learn more about engaging youth with nature? The Indiana Department of Natural Resources and Purdue Extension are partnering to offer seven separate trainings this summer to gain experience and the necessary tools to host their own Nature of Teaching Workshops to better engage youth with nature. This will include sessions on health and wellness, food waste, and wildlife engagement
Cost: $10 (take-home kit included)

Registration: https://bit.ly/3vT9Cjh
Contact: Laurynn Thieme at ljthieme@purdue.edu

Sessions (Each workshop will be held from 1-5 PM):
Friday, May 21 Purdue ExtensionLake County 2293 North Main Street Crown Point, IN 46307
Saturday, May 22 Environmental Resources Center- PFW 2101 E Coliseum Blvd. Fort Wayne, IN 46805
Tuesday, June 1 Purdue ExtensionHarrison County 247 Atwood Street Corydon, IN 47112
Wednesday, June 30 John S. Wright Forestry Center 1007 N 725 W, West Lafayette, IN 47906
Sunday, July 11 Munsee Woods 5701 S 475 E Selma, IN 47383
Friday, July 30 Karst Farm Park 2450 South Endwright Road Bloomington, IN 47403
Saturday, July 31 Mesker Park Zoo 1545 Mesker Park Drive Evansville, IN 47720

For more information, please view the The Nature of Teaching & Indiana Master Naturalist Training Flyer (pdf).

Resources
Purdue Nature of Teaching
Purdue Nature of Teaching YouTube channel
Transporting Food Waste, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Resourceful Animal Relationships, The Education Store
Benefits of Connecting with Nature, The Education Store

Laurynn Thieme, Extension Educator & Nature of Teaching Program Coordinator
Purdue Extension – Delaware County

Rod Williams, Professor of Wildlife Science
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


In this edition of ID That Tree, Purdue extension forester Lenny Farlee explains how to identify shellbark hickory without the help from its leaves. He also shares about how to distinguish this native Indiana species from its close cousin, the shagbark hickory.

If you have any questions regarding wildlife, trees, forest management, wood products, natural resource planning or other natural resource topics, feel free to contact us by using our Ask an Expert web page.

Resources
Hickory and Pecan Species, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Shellbark Hickory, Native Trees of Indiana River Walk, Purdue Fort Wayne
Shagbark Hickory, The Purdue Arboretum Explorer
FNR- Hardwood Shagbark Hickory, The Purdue Arboretum Explorer
ID That Tree Fall Color Edition: Shagbark Hickory, Video, Got Nature? Blog, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources
ID That Tree, Playlist, Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube Channel
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resource


Most of us have probably heard or seen a lot about pollinators in the media recently. The reason why is that pollinators are really, really important. We simply can’t live without them. Researchers estimate that one out of every three bites of food we eat is made possible by pollinators. More than 100 food crops in the U.S. depend on pollinators, including almost all fruit and grain crops.

There are many different types of pollinators including native bees, butterflies and moths, beetles, flies, wasps, and of course hummingbirds. But perhaps one of the more interesting pollinators is the Monarch. Millions of Monarchs congregate in a relative small area in Mexico each winter. In March they start their journey north which has occurred over several generations. Unfortunately, the number of Monarchs counted in overwintering colonies has declined over the past 25 years.

Monarch butterfly

In response, many states including Indiana have developed a state Monarch Conservation Plan. With input from many stakeholders over several years, the Indiana Monarch Conservation Plan was released in December 2020. One goal of the plan was to create an online resource that would act as a clearinghouse for Indiana monarch and pollinator conservation data, research, best management practices (BMPs), and events. I invite you to visit the Indiana Monarch and Pollinator Conservation Hub at https://indianawildlife.org/monarchs/.

You might be asking yourself, ‘Why is a wildlife specialist writing about pollinators?’ It turns out that quality habitat for wildlife is often quality habitat for pollinators. The diversity of wildflowers and structure that native grasslands, trees and shrubs benefit them all. Trees such as eastern redbud and Ohio buckeye provide early nectar sources. Native grasslands that have a diverse mixture of wildflowers provide food, bare ground, and structure desirable for a wide variety of pollinators.

Resources
Protecting Pollinators: Why Should We Care About Pollinators?, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Ask The Expert: What’s Buzzing or Not Buzzing About Pollinators , Purdue Extension – Forestry & Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube Channel
Purdue Pollinator Protection publication series, Purdue Extension Entomology
Indiana Monarch & Pollinator Conservation Hub, Indiana Wildlife Federation
Monarch Watch, University of Kansas
100 Plants to Feed the Monarch/Other Resources Available, Xerxes Society for Invertebrate Conservation

Brian MacGowan, Wildlife Extension Specialist & Extension Coordinator
Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Purdue Landscape Report: J. Sterling Morton had a strong enthusiasm for trees and advocated intensely for individuals and civic groups to plant them. Once he became secretary of the Nebraska Territory, he further spread his message of the value of trees and Morton first proposed a tree planting holiday to be called “Arbor Day” at a meeting of the State Board of Agriculture.

The celebration date was set for April 10, 1872. Prizes were offered to counties and individuals for the largest number of properly planted trees on that day. It was estimated that more than 1 million trees were planted in Nebraska on the first Arbor Day.

Many other states also passed legislation to observe Arbor Day each year. By 1920, more than 45 states and territories were celebrating Arbor Day. The tree planting tradition became prominent in schools across the nation in 1882, with students were learning about the importance of trees as well as receiving a tree to plant in their own yard. They continue to do so today in many states.

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Celebrate arbor day by planting a tree!

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Trees make a difference in our lives, every day.

Currently, Arbor Day is celebrated in all 50 states. The most common date for the state observance is the last Friday in April — National Arbor Day — but a number of state Arbor Days are at other times to coincide with the best tree planting weather, from January and February in the south to May in the far north.

Find out when people in your state gather together to plant and celebrate trees.

So, just why do we celebrate trees?  They are essential to our health and quality of life. Trees provide many benefits, called ecosystem services, that impact nearly every aspect of our daily life. Trees improve air and water quality, reduce heating and cooling costs, improve health outcomes, increase business, and so much more. Simply stated, we need trees.

How do we determine the value of those benefits trees provide where we live? Research and technology have made it much easier to quantify those ecosystem services.  The value of your tree and the ecosystem services it provides can be found by visiting this web page.  It’s fun and easy to find out just what your tree contributes to the urban forest.

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Find out what your tree is worth in benefits.

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Trees provide ecosystem services including shade.

Join us in paying tribute to our trees which make up our urban forests by selecting and planting a tree where you live or taking part in a community tree planting. Learn how to choose and plant a tree properly to help improve the longevity and hopefully it will be providing those benefits in the future for your grandchildren and beyond. Trees can be a living legacy to great environmental stewardship.  Plant trees not just for the future, but with a future. Some additional resources are available below:

For the best advice on tree planting and care, seek out a tree care professional with the experience and expertise to care for your trees. Search for a tree care provider in your area. Also, consider hiring an ISA Certified Arborist which can be found here.

Resources
Tree Appraisal and the Value of Trees, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Resources and Assistance Available for Planting Hardwood Seedlings, The Education Store
Tree Support Systems, The Education Store
Tree Planting Part 1: Choosing A Tree, Video, Purdue Extension YouTube channel
Tree Planting Part 2: Planting Your Tree, Purdue Extension Video
Planting Problems: Trees Planted Too Deep, Video, Purdue Extension –  Forestry and Natural Resources
Tree Selection for Landscape, Purdue Extension – FNR Video
Tree Installation for the Landscape, Purdue Extension – FNR Video
Tree Pruning for the Landscape, Purdue Extension – FNR Video

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on May 1st, 2021 in Forestry, How To, Plants, Urban Forestry | No Comments »

Purdue Landscape Report: The hard freeze April 20th & 21st had many homeowners concerned about their perennial and annual plants in their landscape.  For the vast majority of perennial plants, there aren’t many issues long-term of concern.  Some foliage and flowers have significant damage, but the plants will recover, and possibly release new vegetative buds in severe cases.  The plants that suffered the most damage, and in some cases death, are the annuals planted by impatient landscapers and gardeners.  Planting annuals prior to the frost-free date (May 10th in central Indiana) will more than likely cause a replant to occur.

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Figure 1. Cold temperatures and cold on April 21-22 caused stress on many plants that have broken buds.

In addition to the potential stress from the temperatures, many trees received broken limbs due the combined weight of the leaves/flowers and snow load.

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Figure 2. A Japanese Zelkova in full leaf with a heavy snow load.

If you maintain a client’s fruit trees (i.e. apples), there may be a significant impact on fruit production.  The Purdue Meigs Horticultural Research Farm, located about eight miles south of the West Lafayette campus, recorded a low temperature of 22o F on April 21st.  Dr. Peter Hirst, pomologist, indicated that at the current stage of flowering a temperature of 25o F might result in a 90% bud kill.  Since there was a significant snowfall, the hope is that there was some moderation in temperatures.

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Figure 3. Apple flowers on April 22 in West Lafayette. Photo by Tristand Tucker.

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Figure 5. Apple flowers on April 22 in West Lafayette. Photo by Tristand Tucker.

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Figure 4. Apple flowers on April 22 in West Lafayette. Photo by Tristand Tucker.

Plants that have been stressed due to cold temperatures should be closely monitored over the growing season.  Don’t prune ‘dead’ portions until you allow more buds to break.  Chances are the early foliage was dropped and new leaves will soon emerge.  Be sure to provide adequate moisture to assist in recovery.  Currently about half of the state is in the beginning stages of drought, so be sure to provide irrigation now if your area is dry.  Always remember that too much water can be just as detrimental as too little water.

The Indianapolis Star published an article on the extreme low temperatures.

Resources
Purdue Landscape Report
Tree Installation for the Landscape, Video, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube Channel
Effects of Cold Weather on Horticultural Plants in Indiana, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Winterize Your Trees, The Education Store
What do Trees Do in the Winter? , Got Nature? Blog, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources

Kyle Daniel, Nursery & Landscape Outreach Specialist
Purdue Horticulture and Landscape Architecture


Tree Bark Damage

Photo from publication FNR-492-W

Question: I am actually a Master Gardner in Hamilton County and I need help with a tree bark damage question. We have a beautiful dogwood tree that is about 18’ tall and 6” in diameter. By accident my husband backed into the tree with his truck while unloading mulch – he did not see it! Now there is severe damage to the bark at the bumper height – about 3” wide and 14” long. All the way down the bark is gone.

What are the chances the tree will survive? What if anything should I do at this point?

My husband wanted to cover it with painter’s tape to protect it but I know that is not good for the tree. Please let me know your suggestions as I do hope to save the tree if possible.

Answer: Well, that is certainly an unfortunate accident for the tree! There may be a rescue treatment worth trying that research has shown promise in sealing the wound. The ability for the tree to seal and close off wounds is based on species, age and energy resources. Additionally, follow these instructions…

  1. Keep the tree healthy; mulch and supplemental watering during drought conditions.
  2. Trace the wound with a wood file and sharp knife, removing any loose bark to a clean wound.
  3. Take black plastic and attach it to the tree wound, just past the wound edge, using small, ¼” staples from a staple gun.
  4. Attach the plastic so that it forms a seal which will help to maintain a moist environment for parenchyma cells to do their work at compartmentalizing and creating wound wood on the perimeter of the damaged area.
  5. The plastic may need to be checked periodically to be sure it is attached well until removal.
  6. Leave the wound covered for about 12 months, then remove carefully.

This will not guarantee recovery, but research has indicated it does facilitate healing more quickly in many species. Continue to monitor for health and recovery.

Good luck!

Resources
Tree Wound and Healing, Got Nature? Blog, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources
Equipment Damage to Trees, Got Nature? Blog
Tree Defect Identification, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Tree Pruning Essentials, Publication & Video, The Education Store
Tree Pruning: What Do Trees Think?, The Education Store
Mechanical Damage to Trees: Mowing and Maintenance Equipment, The Education Store
Tree Planting Part 1: Choosing a Tree, Video, Purdue Extension Channel
Tree Planting Part 2: Planting Your Tree, Purdue Extension Video

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


It’s time to meet another native Indiana tree. This time Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee brings you the Umbrella Magnolia. This small tree is easily identified by the clusters of long simple leaves at the end of the twigs, which form an umbrella shape.

If you have any questions regarding wildlife, trees, forest management, wood products, natural resource planning or other natural resource topics, feel free to contact us by using our Ask an Expert web page.

Resources
Indiana’s Native Magnolias, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Umbrella Magnolia, Native Trees of Indiana River Walk, Purdue Fort Wayne
Umbrella Magnolia, Purdue Arboretum Explorer
ID That Tree, Playlist, Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube Channel
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube Channel
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resource


Posted on April 21st, 2021 in Forestry, Gardening, How To | No Comments »

Purdue Landscape Report: PART 1 – The Importance of “Physical” Soil Testing
In my 40 years of teaching and consulting, one of the biggest and most frustrating problems I continually encounter is when so called “landscape professionals” and homeowners continue to apply annual soil fertilizers, lime, and other soil amendments without ever conducting a professional soils test.

Before planting long-lived trees, shrubs, flowering perennials and lawns, it is absolutely essential to have your soil tested for its physical, chemical, and biological properties. To have a beautiful landscape, an awesome lawn, or a very productive vegetable garden, we need to do soil tests because the health and vigor of everything we grow is directly dependent on the soil we are growing our plant’s roots in.

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Figure 2: It is important to recognize the amount of sand, silt and clay in your landscape soils.

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Figure1: A soil probe can be useful for soil testing and checking for moisture in the soil.

As an analogy, when you go to a family doctor or physician, why will they usually require a professional blood test from you?  They want to “show you the numbers” of your cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, sodium, potassium, and a whole array of other very important blood tests. Again, if they prescribe you to take medications, but they are not helping and can actually hinder your health, lawsuits can definitely occur. I tell my students, before anything is applied on a client’s property, “show me the numbers”!

Although many intelligent homeowners and landscapers may have initially done a chemical soil test, many have never done a soil texture, soil compaction, and/or soil drainage test on their property or their clients. Why do we need to do these “physical” soil tests?  Think about it. For root growth, its not just about nutrient deficiencies, toxicities, or soil acidity problems, its about life giving oxygen in the root zone. Without oxygen, the entire ecosystem below ground will suffer. This is why I recommend you to determine your soil texture, (sand, silt, and clay %’s). Professional soils labs can determine your soil’s texture and that is very important, not only for knowing how much and when to water, but to determine what kind of fertilizers will work best for your soil. Many sandy soils are nutrient deficient because they have little negatively charged organic matter or clay to hold onto the positively charged nutrient fertilizers (cations). Excess rain and watering will leach many of the quick-release fertilizers, especially nitrate and potassium out of the root zone. This is why I recommend slow-release fertilizers on most soils so your plant’s roots will have available nutrients for a much longer time.

For full article >>>

Resources
Soil Sampling Guidelines, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Soil Testing for Lawns, The Education Store
Consumer Horticulture: Collecting Soil Samples for Testing, The Education Store
Certified Soil Testing Laboratories, Purdue Extension – Master Gardener Program
Example soil test form

Chris Carlson, Associate Professor
Kent State University Arboriculture & Urban Forestry


Posted on April 16th, 2021 in Forestry, How To, Plants, Urban Forestry, Woodlands | No Comments »

On this winter edition of ID That Tree, Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee uses black walnut and eastern cottonwood twigs to show you tips on how to identify native Indiana trees with alternative leaf arrangement without help from the leaves.

If you have any questions regarding wildlife, trees, forest management, wood products, natural resource planning or other natural resource topics, feel free to contact us by using our Ask an Expert web page.

Resources
Black Walnut, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Facts About Black Walnut, The Education Store
Black Walnut, Native Trees of Indiana Riverwalk, Purdue Fort Wayne
Cottonwood, The Education Store
Eastern Cottonwood, Native Trees of Indiana Riverwalk
FNR Hardwood – Eastern Cottonwood, The Purdue Arboretum Explorer
ID That Tree, Playlist
A Woodland Management Moment, Playlist, Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube Channel
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resource


Posted on April 15th, 2021 in Forestry, How To, Wildlife | No Comments »

The spring of 2021 will bring the emergence of Cicada Brood X, a 17-year periodical cicada. These cicadas will number in the billions and will emerge across 15 states, including Indiana.

With billions of cicadas emerging in a short period, what does that mean for wildlife? If you are a species that eat insects or one that gets eaten by a species that eat insects, this brood emergence could be a blessing in disguise.

The reasons why this cicada eruption may be a benefit to wildlife vary. But they boil down to a few primary explanations. One fairly obvious cause and some more obscure.

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This map from the US Forest Service shows where the cicada Brood X (yellow) will occur this spring. Source: USFS

All you can eat cicada buffet
The most obvious way the cicada emergence may impact wildlife is by providing an all-you-can-eat cicada buffet. If you are a wildlife species that eats insects, this can be a good thing. Research, The Occurrence and Significance of Anomalous Reproductive Activities in Two North American Non-Parasitic Cuckoos Coccyzue SPP, from southern Indiana reported that some songbird species have more nests, larger clutches, and earlier breeding due to this superabundant food. And in a study, Population Responses of Peromyscus leucopus and Blarina brevicauda to Emergence of Periodical Cicadas, in west-central Indiana, short-tailed shrew populations increased fourfold during the year of cicada emergence.

Eat this, not that
Having access to this endless supply of cicadas also impacts wildlife populations for two less obvious reasons. These have to do with two main concepts; alternative food/prey and predator satiation.

In years of cicada emergence, many animals switch their diet to take advantage of this superabundant food; hence they have plenty of alternative food or prey. In one Indiana study, Food Habits of Mammals During an Emergence of 17-year Cicadas, raccoon diets consisted of 51% cicadas during the cicada emergence.

Access to this superabundant food source also means many animals may fill up on cicadas and consume fewer alternative foods. This is the idea of predator satiation. Predators may be so full (satiated) from cicadas; they spend less time and effort looking for alternative foods, such as bird eggs, leading to increased nest survival and productivity for many bird species.

These concepts and the abundance of food provided by cicadas often work in concert to impact many wildlife species. This can result in short-term increases in population or nest or brood survival in some species. Here are a few examples of how cicadas can impact wildlife.

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Wild turkeys are one of the species that can benefit from a cicada emergence. Photo credit: USFWS

Wild turkeys; more poults and higher harvest
One example of how the 17-year cicada emergence can impact wildlife relates to wild turkeys. During the last emergence in Indiana in Wild Turkey Brood Production – Summer 2005, turkey productivity (poults/hen) increased an estimated 83% compared to 2003 and was 52% higher than the average productivity from 1993-2020. According to Indiana DNR Wild Turkey Biologist Steve Backs, this increase was related to 2 major factors; good weather during nesting and brooding season and an abundance of cicadas.

“Turkey production goes up in a cicada year because both poults and hens benefit from the availability of the abundant invertebrate food, spend less time feeding, and have less exposure to predation. Potential nest, egg, and poult predators are also pre-occupied or distracted by feeding on emerging cicada larva (alternative prey),” said Backs.

This increase in turkey production may also lead to more turkeys gobbling and more turkeys harvested in the following years. If we look at turkey gobbling, Spring Wild Turkey Gobbling Counts, 2019, and harvest data Spring Wild Turkey Harvest Results – 2020, from Indiana, there was a spike in turkey gobbling and harvest two years (2006) after the 2004 17-year cicada emergence.

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Roadside turkey gobbling indices from Indiana DNR annual surveys show an increase in gobbling activity in 2006. Source: Indiana DNR Spring Wild Turkey Gobbling Counts, 2020

According to Backs, “Increased turkey production during the cicada event year is subsequently manifested in the turkey gobbling counts and harvests two years later. Two-year-old gobblers are the most active or vocal gobblers, they are also the most vulnerable to harvest, and the proportion of 2-yr-olds in the population is a principal driver of our spring turkey harvests.”

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Indiana spring turkey harvest from 1995-2020 showing an increased harvest in 2006. Source: Steve Backs, Wild Turkey Biologist, Indiana DNR

Cicadas are for the birds
Beyond just turkeys, the cicada emergence may also be beneficial to many songbird species. In one study, The Effects of a Periodic Cicada Emergence on Forest Birds and the Ecology of Cerulean Warblers, at Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge in southeast Indiana, nest survival for several songbird species increased during the 2004 17-year cicada emergence. This increase was likely due to the birds having an abundance of food and less pressure from nest predators. However, nest success declined the following year, indicating the cicada emergence’s benefits may be short-lived.

In another study, Effects of Periodical Cicada Emergences on Abundance and Synchrony of Avian Populations, from the US Forest Service, that looked at regional songbird populations, some songbird species increased only during the year of cicada emergence (e.g., yellow-billed cuckoo). Other species’ populations increased 1-3 years after cicada emergence (e.g., red-headed woodpecker and blue jay). And some species populations didn’t change (e.g., red-eyed vireos). These changes are likely related to increased food abundance and increased nest and brood survival in these bird species.

Ephemeral pulse
While some wildlife may benefit from the 17-year cicada emergence, just like the emergence itself, the impacts are often short-lived. The change in population size or nest or brood survival may only last for 1-3 years following the emergence.

And in some cases, the cicada emergence may lead to some unforeseen consequences. For example, predator populations may increase following a cicada emergence which may decrease survival or productivity for some species for 1-3 years following emergence.

We won’t know what wildlife benefits the 2021 Brood X cicadas will bring until after they emerge. But when it comes to turkeys, Backs recommends not to count your turkey eggs before they hatch. “No matter how many extra poults hatch because of the cicadas and how much potential cicada food is out there, 1-2 big rain events in early June can significantly reduce turkey poult survival, which may negate the positive impact of the cicada emergence.”

How can you help the Indiana DNR track turkey productivity?
With the cicada hatch this year, there may be a change in turkey productivity. But can that be tracked? The answer is yes, but only with your help. Each summer, the Indiana DNR asks for volunteers to track turkey productivity by reporting turkey hens and broods seen in July and August. More information can found by visiting the Indiana DNR’s Turkey Brood Reporting Website. You can also find out more about how you can help by visiting this Got Nature? Blog Post – Four Simple Steps, Help Indiana DNR Estimate Wild Turkey Populations.

Resources
17 Ways to Make the Most of the Cicada Entomology, Purdue College of Agriculture News
Periodical Cicada in Indiana, Purdue Extension – Entomology
The Year of Cicada, Purdue Extension
Purdue Landscape Report: 17-year Cicadas are coming, Got Nature? Blog, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources
Four Simple Steps, Help Indiana DNR Estimate Wild Turkey Populations, Got Nature? Blog
Cicada, Youth and Entomology, Purdue Extension
Indiana DNR Wildlife and Fisheries Reports

Jarred Brooke, Extension Wildlife Specialist
Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Got Nature?

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