Got Nature? Blog

Posted on September 26th, 2022 in Wildlife | No Comments »

Timber rattlesnakes are widely distributed across the eastern half of the United States, living as far north as New Hampshire and as far south as Florida. Hilly forests like those found in Brown, Monroe and Morgan County, Indiana suit the secretive lifestyle of the venomous snake. According to Purdue Extension wildlife specialist Brian MacGowan, there is no reliable estimate of the number of Timber rattlesnakes living in Indiana. Sightings are rare but most likely to occur during the hottest parts of the year.

“Late July and August are the peak of their breeding season in Indiana,” said MacGowan. “The males move around a lot more, tracking the scent of the females.”Unexpected snake in indiana

While they are normally hidden among rocks and brush, rattlesnakes have been observed 20 feet high in trees on rare occasion.

“Chipmunks are their primary food source in Indiana, but larger males eat squirrels and similarly-sized prey,” MacGowan explained. “They even consume songbirds.” A typical adult grows to be between three and five feet in length.

Rattlesnakes are patient hunters. Most often they use their natural camouflage to ambush prey. They inject a lethal venom, potentially strong enough to kill a human if left untreated. The venom contains hemotoxic elements, meaning it can damage or destroy blood vessels and cells.

But just because rattlesnakes are venomous does not mean they create frequent problems for nature lovers. “Timber rattlesnakes are reclusive and are quite unaggressive as far as snakes go,” MacGowan explained. “A lot of the locals in the areas I research don’t realize rattlers live nearby since the snakes keep to themselves.” According to the CDC, roughly 7,500 instances of venomous snakebites are recorded a year in the United States. Of those, about 5 are fatal. During his time as part of the Hardwood Ecosystems Experiment, MacGowan realized that even when looking, finding a rattlesnake is not an easy task.

For full article on the rattlesanke please visit: Unexpected Plants and Animals of Indiana: Timber Rattlesnake

Resources:
Snakes and Lizards of Indiana, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Snakes of the Central and Northeastern United States, The Education Store
Snakes of Indiana, The Education Store
Indiana Amphibian and Reptile ID Package (4 softcover books), The Education Store
Reptiles: Turtles, Snakes, and Lizards​​, Purdue Nature of Teaching Website
Ask An Expert, Playlist, Purdue Extension – Forestry and Natural Resources YouTube channel
A Moment in the Wild: Eastern Hognose, Purdue Extension – FNR Video
A Moment in the Wild: Eastern Kingsnake, Purdue Extension – FNR Video
A Moment in the Wild: Racer, Purdue Extension – FNR Video

Purdue University Department of Agricultural Communication

Dr. Brian MacGowan, Extension Wildlife Specialist
Department of Forestry & Natural Resources, Purdue University


Posted on September 22nd, 2022 in Wildlife | No Comments »
American Eagle Foundation: Our native vultures play a crucial role in reducing the spread of disease. However, as black vulture population increases, so too have reports of human-wildlife interactions. Researchers at Purdue University are currently performing research to better understand reports of black vulture depredation on livestock, and their ultimate goal is to find solutions that protect both livestock and birds.
AEF interviewed Dr. Pat Zollner, Dr. Zhao Ma, doctoral student Marian Wahl, and Ph.D. alumna Brooke McWherter for insight into their important research.
Check out the great information in this video discussing how this research was started and the concerns shared to the USDA office from state offices and the public.

Find out what types of vulture species are here in the United States and their roles in the story Protect Our Native Vultures, American Eagle Foundation.
Vultures have a role to play as nature’s garbagemen, cleaning up animal carcasses. If you have any questions regarding this research, or have any experiences to share, contact Marian Wahl.

Resources:
Black Vulture Research Highlighted by NY Times, Got Nature Blog, Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources
Citizen Participation Needed in Black Vulture Research, Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources News
Black Vulture Research, Perry County News & March Edition of Beef Monthly
Black Vulture Ecology and Human-Wildlife Conflicts, Purdue FNR, Dr. Pat Zollner’s Website

Diana Evans, Extension and Web Communication Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Marion Wahl, Graduate Research Assistant
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


The A Guide to Small-Scale Fish Processing Using Local Kitchen Facilities brochure is an overview of what a fish producer thinking about small-scale fish processing needs to know. The overview includes training requirements, available facilities and highlights of select farmers who have gone through the process.A guild to small scale fishing processing publication cover

This publication is a collaborative project of Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant, the North Central Regional Aquaculture Center, University of Illinois Extension, and Purdue University’s Department of Forestry and Natural Resources.

About the Author
Amy Shambach is Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant’s (IISG) aquaculture marketing outreach associate who works with the aquaculture industry in the USDA’s North Central Regional Aquaculture Center. Her work focuses on the demand side of domestic farm raised seafood products. She provides outreach and extension services to producers, potential producers, and consumers. Along with Dr. Kwamena Quagrainie, producers, aquaculture associations, and consumers, she works to determine the needs of stakeholders.

To receive the free download for the Guide to Small-Scale Fish Processing Using Local Kitchen Facilities please visit The Education Store.

Resources:
Walleye Farmed Fish Fact Sheet, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Pacific White Shrimp Farmed Fact Sheet, The Education Store
Yellow Perch Farmed Fish Fact Sheet, The Education Store
Tilapia Farmed Fish Fact Sheet, The Education Store
Rainbow Trout Farmed Fish Fact Sheet, The Education Store
American Paddlefish, The Education Store
Aquaculture Family Coloring Book Development, The Education Store
Eat Midwest Fish, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant online resource hub

Amy Shambach, Aquaculture Marketing Outreach Associate
Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources/Illinois Indiana Sea Grant Program


Posted on September 7th, 2022 in Forestry, Wildlife, Woodlands | No Comments »

Group of deer on grass, Indiana DNR hunting seasonWild Bulletin, IN DNR Fish and Wildlife: Hunting seasons begin in September and Indiana Department of Natural Resources are sharing the resources you need to plan your hunting trips.

Snipe: Sept. 1–Dec. 16
Sora: Sept. 1–Nov. 9
Early teal: Sept. 10–25
Dove: Sept. 1–Oct. 16
Canada geese (all zones): Sept. 10–18
Deer reduction zone: Sept. 15–Jan. 31, 2023
Youth deer: Sept. 24–25

Deer Reduction Zone Season Starts September 15th
Deer Reduction Zones give hunters opportunities to harvest deer in defined urban areas and along portions of Indiana highways, in addition to statewide bag limits.

Season facts

  • Dates: Sept. 15, 2022, through Jan. 31, 2023.
  • Bag limit: 10 deer, of which only one can be antlered. To satisfy the reduction zone bag limit, a hunter must harvest an antlerless deer in the Deer Reduction Zone before harvesting an antlered deer (a.k.a. earn-a-buck). The earn-a-buck requirement only applies to the reduction zone bag limit, which is in addition to all other bag limits. See the hunting guide for deer bag limits.
  • License required: Deer Reduction Zone license, resident youth hunt/trap, lifetime comprehensive hunting, lifetime comprehensive hunting/fishing license, or license exemption. A valid license is required for each deer taken.
  • Use of firearms: Where allowed by local ordinances, firearms legal for deer hunting can be used in reduction zones with a Deer Reduction Zone license or to count the deer towards the reduction zone bag limit from Nov. 12, 2022, through Jan. 31, 2023. The season does not override any local ordinances restricting the discharge of firearms and bows.
  • For public land included in a Deer Reduction Zone Corridor, the area that can be hunted is limited to within one-half (1/2) mile on either side of the centerline of the indicated road and does not extend beyond the boundaries of the Deer Reduction Zone Corridor. Contact the property for more information about deer hunting rules.
  • It’s illegal to hunt, shoot at, or kill a deer or to shoot at any deer from within, into, upon, or across any public road.
  • Deer Reduction Zones may be altered annually at the DNR director’s discretion based on deer population management needs.

For more deer hunting season information view: IN DNR Deer Reduction Zone.

For full huntingseason list with dates view the Indiana 2022-2023 Hunting & Trapping Season (pdf) list.

The 2022-2023 Hunting & Trapping Guide will answer any questions you may have.

Subscribe to Wild Bulletin.

Resources:
How to Score Your White-tailed Deer, video, The Education Store, Purdue Extension Resource Center
White-Tailed Deer Post Harvest Collection, video, The Education Store
Age Determination in White-tailed Deer, video, The Education Store
How to Build a Plastic Mesh Deer Exclusion Fence, The Education Store
Managing Your Woods for White-Tailed Deer, The Education Store
Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild White-tailed Deer, The Education Store
Subscribe to Purdue Extension-Forestry & Natural Resources YouTube Channel, Wildlife Playlist
Subscribe to MyDNR, Wild Bulletin and State Park Inns News, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IN DNR)
Indiana Deer Hunting, Biology and ManagementFood Safety & Handling Take-Home Tips (80kb pdf), IN DNR

Indiana Department of Natural Resources – Department of Fish & Wildlife


Posted on September 1st, 2022 in Forestry, How To, Plants, Wildlife, Woodlands | No Comments »

The classic and trusted book “Fifty Common Trees of Indiana” by T.E. Shaw was published in 1956 as a user-friendly guide to local species.  Nearly 70 years later, the publication has been updated through a joint effort by the Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Indiana 4-H, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and reintroduced as “An Introduction to Trees of Indiana.”

Drawing of Mockernut Hickory LeafThe full publication is available for download for $7 in the Purdue Extension Education Store. The field guide helps identify common Indiana woodlot trees.

Each week, the Intro to Trees of Indiana web series will offer a sneak peek at one species from the book, paired with an ID That Tree video from Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee to help visualize each species as it stands in the woods. Threats to species health as well as also insight into the wood provided by the species, will be provided through additional resources as well as the Hardwoods of the Central Midwest exhibit of the Purdue Arboretum, if available.

This week, we introduce the White hickory or Carya tomentosa.

This tree, also known as mockernut hickory, has stout twigs like those of shagbark hickory and large terminal buds, but its bark is not shaggy. Instead, mockernut hickory features thick, interlacing bark ridges that is often silvery on top. Its leaves are made up of seven to nine leaflets that are hairy beneath, instead of five. The bud is very rounded, resembling a scoop of ice cream. The bud, leaf stems and twigs may have hair on them. The nuts of the mockernut hickory are smooth and round with mild ridges with four seams, which break open in the fall. The leaves produce a golden-yellow color in the fall.

Mockernut hickories grow to a mature height of 50-60 feet tall. They grow mostly in high dry ridges and other well-drained soil locations from New Hampshire west to Iowa and south to Texas and east to northern Florida except for the flood plain of the Mississippi Rive from Memphis south.

For full article with additional photos view: Intro to Trees of Indiana: Mockernut Hickory

Other Resources:
Hickory and Pecan Species in the Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Sustaining Our Oak-Hickory Forests – Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, The Education Store
The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: 2006-2016, The Education Store
Indiana Forestry and Wildlife: The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, The Education Store
Fifty Trees of the Midwest app for the iPhone, The Education Store
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store
ID That Tree, Purdue Extension-Forestry & Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube playlist
Woodland Management Moment , Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube playlist

Wendy Mayer, FNR Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on September 1st, 2022 in Forestry, How To, Plants, Uncategorized, Wildlife, Woodlands | No Comments »

Purdue Landscape Report, Using Pneumatic Digging Equipment to Correct Root Deformations, Deep Planting, and Compaction on Established Trees: When transplanting trees, it is important to consider the long-term viability. Since the typical life span of an urban tree is 7-20 years (USDA), proper establishment techniques are very important to decrease this mortality rate. When a tree becomes established, it is much more difficult to correct below ground problems.

Root deformations can occur for many reasons in established trees, but the most common are due to not making corrections prior to transplanting. Plants that have girdling and circling roots must Tree that is compacted by the soilbe addressed at the time of planting. If this issue is not addressed many problems may ensue when the tree is established, which includes decline, tree failure, blow-overs, and more.

Another common problem that occurs at transplanting is deep planting.  In the past, plants were often planted deep in the nursery for two main reasons: 1) cold protection of the roots and root flare and 2) prevent the use of staking. In fields that are cultivated, the soil often mounds around the trees which can increase the depth of the root flare. Additionally, when planting into the landscape, trees can be planted too deep, exacerbating the problems associated with planting too deep.

Deep planting can cause an increase in disease, insects, decreased tolerance to flooded soils, adventitious roots, and root circling/girdling. Day and Harris (2008) found that there is significantly more girdled root at 30 cm below grade than at grade or 15 cm below grade. They also found that excavated trees at 30 cm had more girdling roots than non-excavated roots at 30 cm.

Compaction can become an issue when trees are located in high traffic areas. Compaction will cause a decline in trees over time and become more susceptible to increased insect and disease pressure.

Excavating the root system with a pneumatic digger is a method that can be used to correct all of these problems. Removing soil around the tree will allow root deformations to be located and corrected. Removing the soil around the collar to correct planting depth and girdling roots will increase the longevity of the tree. Compaction can be reduced by using a pneumatic digger to remove the soil from the root hairs that are typically located in the top 6 inches of soil for most trees (Morris, et.al., 2009).

To read the full article with additional images and video please visit: Using Pneumatic Digging Equipment to Correct Root Deformations, Deep Planting, and Compaction on Established Trees

For more information on correcting root problems after a tree becomes established:
Stem Girdling Roots
Root Growth on Urban Trees
Tree Root Problems
Air Digging Trench or Loosening Soil
Tree Planted Too Deeply
Roots and the Pneumatic Soil Excavation Tool
Tree Preservation Efforts
Getting Roots Right
Supersonic Air Jets Preserve Tree Roots in Underground Pipeline Installation

More resources:
Root Rot in Landscape Plants, The Education Store
Ask The Expert: Tree Inspection, Purdue Extension- FNR YouTube Channel
Ask The Expert: Tree Selection and Planting, Purdue Extension- FNR YouTube Channel
Surface Root Syndrome, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
The Nature of Teaching: Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Tree Appraisal and the Value of Trees, The Education Store
Construction and Trees: Guidelines for Protection, The Education Store

Kyle Daniel, Extension Specialists
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on August 23rd, 2022 in Forestry, How To, Plants, Wildlife, Woodlands | No Comments »

The classic and trusted book “Fifty Common Trees of Indiana” by T.E. Shaw was published in 1956 as a user-friendly guide to local species.  Nearly 70 years later, the publication has been updated through a joint effort by the Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Indiana 4-H, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and reintroduced as “An Introduction to Trees of Indiana.”

Drawing of shagbark hickory leafThe full publication is available for download for $7 in the Purdue Extension Education Store. The field guide helps identify common Indiana woodlot trees.

Each week, the Intro to Trees of Indiana web series will offer a sneak peek at one species from the book, paired with an ID That Tree video from Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee to help visualize each species as it stands in the woods. Threats to species health as well as also insight into the wood provided by the species, will be provided through additional resources as well as the Hardwoods of the Central Midwest exhibit of the Purdue Arboretum, if available.

This week, we introduce the Shagbark hickory or Carya ovata.

This species is easily identifiable by its rough, shaggy bark, which is often peeling off from the trunk in thin strips. Its unique leaves feature five leaflets, two held opposite one another toward the base of the stem and three held at the end of the leaf. The fruit is a large, four-ribbed nut with a husk that will split all the way open. In the fall, shagbark hickory can provide fall color in the form of its stunning golden or yellow leaves.

Shagbark hickory has several close relatives. Shagbark can be differentiated from its cousin shellbark hickory, which features large stout twigs, seven to nine leaflets and typically has substantially larger nuts.

Shagbark hickories grow to a mature height of 60 to 80 feet tall. They grow mostly in moist, well-drained soil and are often found in upland woodlands and savannas, ranging across the Eastern United States, except in the gulf and Atlantic coastal plains, as well as in portions of Canada along Lake Erie and Ontario and the St. Lawrence River.

Shagbark hickory has a unique application in the furniture industry known as “Old Hickory Furniture,” which originated around 1900 in Indiana. This rustic furniture is made from hickory rounds or sapling with the bark left on, and was used in parks and other natural areas during his prime production.

For full article with additional photos view: Intro to Trees of Indiana: Shagbark Hickory

Other Resources:
Shagbark Hickory in Hardwoods of the Midwest, Purdue Arboretum Explorer
Hickory and Pecan Species in the Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Sustaining Our Oak-Hickory Forests – Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, The Education Store
The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: 2006-2016, The Education Store
Indiana Forestry and Wildlife: The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, The Education Store
Fifty Trees of the Midwest app for the iPhone, The Education Store
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store
ID That Tree, Purdue Extension-Forestry & Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube playlist
Woodland Management Moment , Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube playlist

Wendy Mayer, FNR Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on August 22nd, 2022 in Alert, How To, Wildlife | No Comments »

The precipitous decline in songbird numbers over the past few decades has made national news and generated calls for action to address the issues contributing to this decline. One of the contributing factors to the decline of several North American bird species is the diminishing area of suitable habitat.

banner of birdsThe initial assumption that many people have is this loss of habitat is forests or grasslands being converted into cropland or developments. While this does happen and is a concern in some areas, Indiana has actually been increasing our area of forest over the last several decades. An increasingly common habitat threat to several bird species is changing grassland or forest structure that occur through time in the absence of historic disturbances like fires or land management activities like thinning and harvesting.

The invasion of forests, wetlands, and grasslands by invasive plant species can also degrade or destroy habitat values for birds and other wildlife. Managing areas to reduce invasive species and introducing disturbances like prescribed fires, critical area plantings, thinning, and regeneration activities can improve habitat quality for a variety of declining birds.

The The Nature Conservancy in Indiana, partnering with birders, ornithologists, foresters, and wildlife biologists, has developed the Forestry for the Birds program, modeled from a similar program in Vermont.  The goal is to provide strategies that can benefit both forest management and bird communities, facilitating and simplifying the management of bird-friendly forests. “The Birders Dozen” were selected among declining birds that Indiana residents could identify by sight or song and need conservation action through habitat management.

Learn more about Forestry for the Birds, the Birders Dozen, and what you can do to help declining birds and other wildlife in Indiana. Find the Forestry for the Birds Pocket Guide which is a free download.

Resources:
Managing Woodlands for Birds Video, Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube Channel
Breeding Birds and Forest Management: the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment and the Central Hardwoods Region, The Education Store
The Birders’ Dozen, Profile: Baltimore Oriole, Indiana Woodland Steward
Ask An Expert, Playlist, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube channel
It’s For the Birds, Indiana Yard and Garden-Purdue Consumer Horticulture
Birds and Residential Window Strikes: Tips for Prevention, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
No Room at the Inn: Suburban Backyards and Migratory Birds, Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Wildlife Responses to Timber Harvesting, The Education Store
Subscribe, Purdue Extension – FNR YouTube Channel

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Jessica Outcalt, Agricultural & Natural Resources Educator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Purdue Extension

The Nature Conservancy – Indiana


Posted on August 18th, 2022 in Forestry, How To, Plants, Wildlife, Woodlands | No Comments »

Drawing of Bitternut Hickory LeafThe classic and trusted book “Fifty Common Trees of Indiana” by T.E. Shaw was published in 1956 as a user-friendly guide to local species.  Nearly 70 years later, the publication has been updated through a joint effort by the Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Indiana 4-H, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and reintroduced as “An Introduction to Trees of Indiana.”

The full publication is available for download for $7 in the Purdue Extension Education Store. The field guide helps identify common Indiana woodlot trees.

Each week, the Intro to Trees of Indiana web series will offer a sneak peek at one species from the book, paired with an ID That Tree video from Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee to help visualize each species as it stands in the woods. Threats to species health as well as also insight into the wood provided by the species, will be provided through additional resources as well as the Hardwoods of the Central Midwest exhibit of the Purdue Arboretum, if available.

This week, we introduce the bitternut hickory or Carya cordiformis.

This cousin of the pecan, has anywhere from five to 11 leaflets, commonly seven to nine, on each alternately held compound leaf. Leaflets are much longer than they are wide and are often curved backwards.

A sulphur-colored, elongated bud is a standout identifying characteristic. Bitternut hickory has tight light to silvery gray bark with interlacing ridges throughout the life of the tree.

The fruit is a light colored, small, round nut, with a thick hull and a slight wing where the sutures meet. It is quite bitter and not preferred by animals or humans.

The bitternut hickory is one of the fastest growing hickory species in the state behind the pecan, and produces some fall beauty with yellow and gold foliage. Bitternut hickory, one of the most abundant and wide spread hickory species, can be found on dry gravelly uplands as well as rich moist bottomland from the Atlantic coast to the Great Plains, north through Minnesota and the St. Lawrence River valley, except the gulf coastal plains and the lower Mississippi flood plain regions.

For full article with additional photos view: Intro to Trees of Indiana: Bitternut Hickory.

Other Resources:
Hackberry in Hardwoods of the Midwest, Purdue Arboretum Explorer
Hickory and Pecan Species in the Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Sustaining Our Oak-Hickory Forests – Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, The Education Store
The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: 2006-2016, The Education Store
Indiana Forestry and Wildlife: The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, The Education Store
Fifty Trees of the Midwest app for the iPhone, The Education Store
Native Trees of the Midwest, The Education Store
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest, The Education Store
Investing in Indiana Woodlands, The Education Store
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store
ID That Tree, Purdue Extension-Forestry & Natural Resources (FNR) YouTube playlist
Woodland Management Moment , Purdue Extension-FNR YouTube playlist

Wendy Mayer, FNR Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on August 11th, 2022 in Forestry, How To, Wildlife | No Comments »

drawing of hackberry-leaf lineThe classic and trusted book “Fifty Common Trees of Indiana” by T.E. Shaw was published in 1956 as a user-friendly guide to local species.  Nearly 70 years later, the publication has been updated through a joint effort by the Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Indiana 4-H, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and reintroduced as “An Introduction to Trees of Indiana.”

The full publication is available for download for $7 in the Purdue Extension Education Store. The field guide helps identify common Indiana woodlot trees.

Each week, the Intro to Trees of Indiana web series will offer a sneak peek at one species from the book, paired with an ID That Tree video from Purdue Extension forester Lenny Farlee to help visualize each species as it stands in the woods. Threats to species health as well as also insight into the wood provided by the species, will be provided through additional resources as well as the Hardwoods of the Central Midwest exhibit of the Purdue Arboretum, if available.

This week, we introduce the hackberry or Celtis occidentalis.

This species is easily identified by its single-tooth margined leaves, which are lopsided with one side slightly higher than the other at the base of the twig. The gray, ashy bark is often warty/bumpy with smooth spots in between, although it may be fairly smooth like beech with warts and ridges spaced throughout. Many hackberries have clumps of distorted twigs in their tops call witch’s brooms. The fruit of the hackberry are small hard black berries, which are favored by birds.

The leaves of hackberry may be confused with elm at first glance, due to their sandpapery texture, but elms have doubly toothed margins with smaller teeth on top of the large teeth, unlike the single tooth appearance of hackberry. The leaves are often deteriorating late in the growing season after being attacked by a variety of insects.

Hackberry is often found along fence rows and field edges, but also may be found in the interior woodlands. This species prefers moist, well-drained soils, but will row on limestone outcrops and other droughty areas. It is native to the Midwest and upper eastern United States, ranging from the Great Plains to the east coast and from the Great Lakes states to central Tennessee and Arkansas.

For full article with additional photos view: Intro to Trees of Indiana: Hackberry

Other Resources:

Hackberry in Hardwoods of the Midwest
Hackberry in the Hardwood Lumber and Veneer Series
Why is my hackberry tree losing leaves?
Fifty Trees of the Midwest app for the iPhone
Native Trees of the Midwest
Shrubs and Woody Vines of Indiana and the Midwest
ID That Tree YouTube playlist
Woodland Management Moment YouTube playlist
Investing in Indiana Woodlands
Forest Improvement Handbook

Wendy Mayer, FNR Communications Coordinator
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lenny Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


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