The Scientific Justification screen is where the "Three R's" are described by the Investigator. Each section is a free text field and can be directly entered or copied and pasted (Control C - V) from a secondary word processing application.


Principles of Reduction: Reduction involves strategies for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of fewer animals or for maximizing the information obtained from a given number of animals (without increasing pain or distress) so that in the long run fewer animals are needed to acquire the same scientific information. This approach relies on an analysis of experimental design, applications of newer technologies, the use of appropriate statistical methods, and control of environmentally related variability in animal housing and study areas.

Principles of Refinement: Refinement refers to modification of husbandry or experimental procedures to enhance animal well-being and minimize or eliminate pain and distress. While institutions and investigators should take all reasonable measures to eliminate pain and distress through refinement, IACUCs should understand that with some types of studies there may be either unforeseen or intended experimental outcomes that produce pain. These outcomes may or may not be eliminated based on the goals of the study.

Principles of Replacement: Replacement refers to methods that avoid using animals. The term includes absolute replacements (i.e., replacing animals with inanimate systems such as computer programs) as well as relative replacements (i.e., replacing animals such as vertebrates with animals that are lower on the phylogenetic scale).

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