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Operational Phases

Emergency Preparedness and Planning operations are categorized into four phases. These include the prevention or mitigation of an emergency, preparation for an emergency to occur, response during an emergency and recovery after an emergency takes place. 


Prevention/mitigation operations are intended to eliminate hazards and vulnerabilities, reduce the probability of hazards and vulnerabilities causing an emergency situation, or lessen the consequences of unavoidable hazards and vulnerabilities. Examples of mitigation/prevention activities include hazard identification and elimination, communicating emergency preparedness information, and establishing emergency preparedness training programs.


Preparedness activities, programs, and systems are those that exist prior to an emergency incident and are used to support and enhance response to an emergency incident. Planning, training, exercising, and communications are among the activities conducted under this phase.


Response activities and programs are designed to address the immediate and short-term effects of the onset of an emergency incident. Response operations are designed to reduce casualties and damage and to speed recovery back to normal business and academic operations. Response activities include direction and control, warning, evacuation, other similar operations and appropriate communications.


Recovery is the phase that involves restoring systems to normal status. Short-term recovery actions are undertaken to assess the damage and return vital systems to minimum operating standards; long-term recovery actions may continue indefinitely, but are intended to restore facilities and systems to full capacity.