Visitor Harassment Research Unit @ Purdue

"Committed to the effective participation of micro-traders in tourism communities"

According to research, repeat visitors are less likely to experience trader harassment at destinations

Studies found repeat visitors are least likely to experience and negatively affected by micro-trader harassment at destinations. Therefore, first-time visitors are more likely to encounter and negatively affected by the phenomenon. The studies looked at trader harassment of visitors in multiple countries such as Barbados, Egypt, and Jamaica.

de Albuquerque, K., & McElroy, J. L. (2001). Tourist harassment: Barbados survey results. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(2), 477-492. DOI:

Henthorne, T. L., George, B. P., & Smith, W. C. (2013). Risk perception and buying behavior: An examination of some relationships in the context of cruise tourism in Jamaica. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 14(1), 66-86. DOI:

Khairat, G. M. (2016). Investigating the tourists' harassment effect on the destination choice (A case study: Egypt). Journal of Association of Arab Universities for Tourism and Hospitality13(1), 91-102.


Nicely, A. & Armadita, F. (2017). How resilient are repeat visitors to trader harassment? Tourism Management Perspectives. 23, 154-156. DOI:

Skipper, T. (2009). Understanding tourist-host interactions and their influence on quality tourism experiences. (Master of Arts), Wilfred Laurier University, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved from


2020 Study named 38 ways microentrepreneurs harass visitors at destinations

A 2020 study identified 38 ways micro-business operators at destinations harass visitors. The study looked at trader harassment of visitors across 152 countries and territories. The top three ways named were as follows. Tricking or duping visitors into overpaying. Quoting visitors inflated prices. And approaching visitors one after the other.


Nicely, A., Singh, S. & Zhu, D. (2020). Visitor (trader) harassment further explained. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism. (online) DOI:




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