2021 Visitor (Tourist) Harassment Studies, Scholarly Papers, and Reports

Compiled By:
Annmarie Nicely, PhD
Associate Professor, School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Purdue University, U.S.A.

June 2021


Visitor (Tourist) Harassment Publications

Journal Articles

Nicely, A., Singh, S., Zhu, D., & Yoo, S. (2021). Research note: Important sub-streams for future visitor (trader) harassment research. International Journal of Culture, Tourism & Hospitality Research, 15 (2), 218-226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-03-2020-0070

Sangkaew, N., & Zhu, H. (2020). Understanding tourists’ experiences at local markets in Phuket: An analysis of TripAdvisor reviews. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 1-26. DOI: https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.purdue.edu/10.1080/1528008X.2020.1848747

Xu, D., Pearce, P. L., & Chen, T. (2021). Deconstructing tourist scams: A social-practice-theory perspective. Tourism Management, 82, 104186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104186

Nicely, A., Singh, S. & Zhu, D. (2020). Visitor (trader) harassment further explained. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism. (online) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1528008X.2020.1848748

Ngo, F., & Nicely, A. (2020). Visitor (trader) harassment: Two drivers not examined..... Criminological theories explored. International Journal of Safety and Security in Tourism/Hospitality, 21. Link: https://www.palermo.edu/negocios/cbrs/ediciones.html

Nicely, A. (2020). Why micro-traders harass visitors: A review of the literature. Tourism Culture & Communication. 20(4), 163-174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/194341420X15905615874173

Nicely, A. (2020). Minimizing the negative effects of visitor harassment: A look at Jamaica. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration. (online) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15256480.2020.1769519

Nicely, A., & Armadita, F. (2020). Type of repeat visitors most sensitive to micro-trader harassment. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(2), 164-174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2018.1488820

S., A., & Kaya, I. (2020). Examining of customers' attitudes towards vendor harassment (commissioning) encountered in tourism businesses: Case of Burhaniye. Journal of Business Research - Turk, 12(4), 4065-4084. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20491/isarder.2020.1090

Arachchi, R. S. S. W. (2020). Effect of tourists harassments to the destination image and repeat visit intention of tourisms: A case study of Sri Lanka. Journal of Management, 15(1), 48-60. Link: http://seu.ac.lk/jom/publication/v15n1/JM_15_1_08.pdf

Otoo, F. E., Badu-Baiden, F., & Kim, S. (2019). A qualitative cognitive appraisal of tourist harassment. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(5), 575-589. DOI: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jtr.2274

Alrawadieh, Z., & Alrawadieh, Z. (2019). Developing a typology of tourist harassment in archeological sites: A netnographic approach. Journal of Tourism & Cultural Change, 18(2) 96-112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14766825.2019.1579825

Alrawadieh, Z., Alrawadieh, Z., & Kozak, M. (2019). Exploring the impact of tourist harassment on destination image, tourist expenditure, and destination loyalty. Tourism Management, 73, 13-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.01.015

Sorokina, E., Wang, Y., & Cobos, L. M. (2018). Towards constructing the meaning of “aggressive hospitality”. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 35(8), 1043-1057. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2018.1470595

Truong, V. D. (2018). Tourism, poverty alleviation, and the informal economy: The street vendors of Hanoi, Vietnam. Tourism Recreation Research, 43(1), 52-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2017.1370568

Nicely, A. & Mohd Ghazali, R. (2018). Music and emotion Links to visitor harassment: A look at Jamaica. Tourism Review. 74(3) 371-384. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-11-2017-0174

Nicely, A., & Armadita, F. (2018). Sympathy and loyalty intention after visitor harassment.  International Journal of Culture, Tourism & Hospitality Research, 12(1), 47-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-07-2017-0076

Stazaker, K., & Mackinnon, J. (2018). Visitor perceptions of captive, endangered Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus) used as photo props in Jemaa El Fna Square, Marrakech, Morocco. Anthrozoös, 31(6), 761-776. DOI: https://doi-org.ezproxy.lib.purdue.edu/10.1080/08927936.2018.1529360

Chang, T., Tang, S., & Cheng, K. (2018). Face it? Or avoid it? Traveler’s cognitions of tourism hassles, responsiveness, and attitude tendencies. Journal of Tourism & Hospitality, 7(3). Link: https://www.longdom.org/open-access/face-it-or-avoid-it-travelers-cognitions-of-tourism-hasslesresponsiveness-and-attitude-tendencies-2167-0269-1000360.pdf

Qiao, G., Chen, N., & Prideaux, B. (2017). Understanding interactions between beggars and international tourists: The case of China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(3), 272-283. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2016.1233891

Collins, M. D., & Jones, D. L. (2017). Exploring the relationship between destination image, aggressive street behavior, and tourist safety. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 26(7), 735-751. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2017.1286279

Nicely, A. & Armadita, F. (2017). How resilient are repeat visitors to trader harassment? Tourism Management Perspectives. 23, 154-156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2017.02.003

Nicely, A. & Mohd Ghazali, R. (2017). Mitigating aggressive small trade at tourist destinations through cognitive restructuring. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration. 18 (2), 171-194. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15256480.2016.1264905

Brown, L., & Osman, H. (2017). The female tourist experience in Egypt as an Islamic destination. Annals of Tourism Research, 63, 12-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2016.12.005

Nyaruwata, S., & Douglas, R. (2017). Visitor perceptions on Zimbabwe as a tourist destination and implications for policy directions. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism & Leisure, 6(2), 1-8. Link: http://www.ajhtl.com/uploads/7/1/6/3/7163688/article_26_vol_6__2__2017.pdf

Khairat, G. M. (2016). Investigating the tourists' harassment effect on the destination choice (A case study: Egypt). Journal of Association of Arab Universities for Tourism and Hospitality, 13(1), 91-102. Link: https://jaauth.journals.ekb.eg/article_49703_455929110fc88a5d25c2b5344fdb43ae.pdf

Andriotis, K. (2016). Beggars–tourists' interactions: An unobtrusive typological approach. Tourism Management, 52, 64-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.06.006

Badu-Baiden, F., Adu-Boahen, E. A., & Otoo, F. E. (2016). Tourists’ response to harassment: A study of international tourists to Ghana. Anatolia, 27(4), 468-479. DOI:  https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13032917.2016.1193817

Li, J., & Pearce, P. (2016). Tourist scams in the city: Challenges for domestic travelers in urban China. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 2(4), 294-308. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJTC-09-2016-0024

Ndivo, R. M., & Cantoni, L. (2016). The efficacy of heritage interpretation at the Lalibela Rock-Hewn churches in Ethiopia: exploring the need for integrating ICT-mediation International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 4(3), 17-28. Link: https://www.witpress.com/Secure/elibrary/papers/UT16/UT16009FU1.pdf

Sandaruwani, J. A. R. C., & Gnanapala, W. K. A. (2016). The role of tourist guides and their impacts on sustainable tourism development: A critique on Sri Lanka. Tourism, Leisure & Change, 3, TOC-62. Link: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/ja-sandaruwani-2/publication/345900808_the_role_of_tourist_guides_and_their_impacts_on_sustainable_tourism_development_a_critique_on_sri_lanka/links/5fb143c3299bf10c3680afc2/the-role-of-tourist-guides-and-their-impacts-on-sustainable-tourism-development-a-critique-on-sri-lanka.pdf

Nicely, A., Day, J., Sydnor, S. & Mohd Ghazali, R. (2015). Sustainably changing small traders’ harassment behaviors - A theoretical framework. Tourism Management. 47, 273-285. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.10.002

Nicely, A. (2015). Reversing visitor harassment through deliberate intelligence building strategies. Tourism Culture & Communication Journal. 15(2), 121-139(19). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830415X14401707765962

S., T., & Oswin, N. (2015). Itinerant livelihoods: Street vending-scapes and the politics of mobility in upland socialist Vietnam. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 36(3), 394-410. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/sjtg.12114

Ünguren, E., Arslan, S., & Kacmaz, Y. Y. (2015). The effect of commissioning on tourists as a type of tourist harassment. Akdeniz İ.İ.B.F. Magazine, 15(32), 129-174.

Milman, A. (2015). Preserving the cultural identity of a World Heritage Site: The impact of Chichen Itza’s souvenir vendors. International Journal of Culture, Tourism & Hospitality Research, 9(3), 241-260. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-06-2015-0067

Pathirana, D. P. U., & Athula Gnanapala, W. K. (2015). Tourist harassment at cultural sites in Sri Lanka. Tourism, Leisure & Global Change, 2, 42-56.

Wen, J., & Yina, L. (2015). The tourist harassment based on the marketing. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 5(3), 110-113. DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2015.53012

Rathnayake, R., & Wijesundara, W. (2015). Tourist perception on harassment in Sri Lanka (with special reference to Mount Lavinia). International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(4). Link: http://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0415/ijsrp-p4092.pdf

Khajuria, S., & Khanna, S. (2014). Tourism risks and crimes at pilgrimage destinations - A case of Shri mata Vaishno Devi. International Journal of Event Management Research, 8(1), 77-93. Link: http://www.ijemr.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Khajuria.pdf

Nicely, A. & Mohd Ghazali, R. (2014). Demystifying visitor harassment? Annals of Tourism Research. 48, 266-269. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2014.05.011

Johnson, L. (2014). Work at the periphery: Issues of tourism sustainability in Jamaica. Culture Bound: Journal of Current Cultural Research, 6(5), 949-962. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3384/cu.2000.1525.146949

Wu, M.-Y., Wall, G., & Pearce, P. L. (2014). Shopping experiences: International tourists in Beijing's Silk Market. Tourism Management, 41, 96-106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.09.010

Balafoutas, L., Beck, A., Kerschbamer, R., & Sutter, M. (2013). What drives taxi drivers? A field experiment on fraud in a market for credence goods. The Review of Economic Studies, 80(3), 876-891. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/restud/rds049

Lozanski, K. (2013). Encountering beggars: Disorienting travelers? Annals of Tourism Research, 42, 46-64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2013.01.004

Chepkwony, R. (2013). The magnitude and effects of tourist harassment on repeat visits: A case study of Kenya's coastal city of Mombasa. International Journal of Current Research, 5(10), 2978-2981. Link: http://www.journalcra.com/

Chepkwony, R., & Kangogo, M. (2013). Nature and factors influencing tourist harassment at coastal beach of Mombasa. International Research Journal of Social Sciences, 2(11), 17-22. Link: http://www.isca.in/IJSS/Archive/v2/i11/4.ISCA-IRJSS-2013-153.pdf

Henthorne, T. L., George, B. P., & Smith, W. C. (2013). Risk perception and buying behavior: An examination of some relationships in the context of cruise tourism in Jamaica. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 14(1), 66-86. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15256480.2013.753808

Blakley, B. D. (2012). From handbills to proposed bills: Suggestions for regulating the Las Vegas "strip" tease. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2012(4), 1297-1330. DOI: https://digitalcommons.law.byu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2680&context=lawreview

Rhiney, K. (2012). The Negril tourism industry: Growth, challenges and future prospects. Caribbean Journal of Earth Science, 43, 25-34. URL: https://www.mona.uwi.edu/geoggeol/JamGeolSoc/CJES%20Web%20page/CJESpdf/CJES%2043-04-RhineyNegril.pdf

Qiu, S.-p., & Chen, N. (2011). Transnational comparative analysis on perception of criminal violation risks in tourism. Journal of Taiyuan Normal University, 10(6), 44-49. Link: https://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-DSYZ201106013.htm

Pearce, P. L. (2011). Tourist scams: Exploring the dimensions of an international tourism phenomenon. European Journal of Tourism Research, 4(2), 147-156. DOI: https://search.proquest.com/openview/1bbfddce1cd1b06139e93a24a3f44041/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=55001

Chiu, S., & Lin, S. (2011). Study on risk perceptions of international tourists in India. African Journal of Business Management, 5(7), 2742-2752. Link: https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJBM/article-full-text-pdf/42DCE2429403

Howard, R. W. (2009). Risky business? Asking tourists what hazards they actually encountered in Thailand. Tourism Management, 30(3), 359-365. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2008.08.007

Smith, R. A., & Henderson, J. C. (2008). Integrated beach resorts, informal tourism commerce and the 2004 tsunami: Laguna Phuket in Thailand. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(3), 271-282. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jtr.659

Kozak, M. (2007). Tourist harassment: A marketing perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(2), 384-399. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2006.10.003

McElroy, J., Tarlow, P., & Carlisle, K. (2007). Tourist harassment: Review of the literature and destination responses. International Journal of Culture, Tourism & Hospitality Research, 1(4), 305-314. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17506180710824190

Swanson, K. (2007). Revanchist urbanism heads south: The regulation of indigenous beggars and street vendors in Ecuador. Antipode, 39(4), 708-728. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2007.00548.x

Ajagunna, I. (2006). Crime and harassment in Jamaica: Consequences for sustainability of the tourism industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 18(3), 253-259. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09596110610658652

Kingsbury, P. (2005). Jamaican tourism and the politics of enjoyment. Geoforum, 36(1), 113-132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2004.03.012

Dunn, H., & Dunn, L. (2002). Tourism and popular perceptions: Mapping Jamaican attitudes. Social & Economic Studies, 51(1), 25-45. DOI:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/27865260

Chambers, D., & Airey, D. (2001). Tourism policy in Jamaica: A tale of two governments. Current Issues in Tourism, 4(2-4), 94-120. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13683500108667884

 de Albuquerque, K., & McElroy, J. L. (2001). Tourist harassment: Barbados survey results. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(2), 477-492. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(00)00057-8

Chaudhary, M. (2000). India's image as a tourist destination — a perspective of foreign tourists. Tourism Management, 21(3), 293-297. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00053-9

Book & Book Chapters

Nicely, A., & Morrison, K. G. (2019). Economic impact of visitor (trader) harassment on tourist destinations and what tourism leaders can do about it. In D. Gursoy & R. Nunkoo (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of tourism impacts: Theoretical and applied perspectives (pp. 168). New York, NY: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Spencer, A. (2019). Caribbean tourism public perceptions and social realities Travel and Tourism in the Caribbean: Challenges and Opportunities for Small Island Developing States (pp. 73-93). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Cleare, A. (2016). Tourism awareness. Business of travel and tourism in the 21st century: A Caribbean approach (pp. 295-304): Lulu Publishing Services.

McElroy, J. L., Tarlow, P., & Carlisle, K. (2007). Tourist harassment and responses. Oxfordshire, UK: CAB International.

McElroy, J. (2004). Tourist harassment: Review and survey results. In A. Harriott (Ed.), Understanding crime in Jamaica: New challenges for public policy (pp. 177-195). Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press.

Dunn, H., & Dunn, L. (2002). People and tourism. Kingston, Jamaica: Arawak Publications.

Theses & Dissertations

Rahman, N. (2018). International students’ perception of risk and safety when travelling: Case study on students of Dalarna University, Borlange, Sweden. (Master's), Dalarna University.  Link: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1261984&dswid=-3088

Kirkesæther, H. M. (2018). To the heart of the wood. Strategies of survival among art vendors in Malawi. UiT Norges arktiske universitet.  Link: https://ninum.uit.no/handle/10037/12874

Jarvis, T. (2013). Sustainable tourism in Sri Lanka: A comparative study of beach tourist hassle. (Masters of Arts in Professional Practice Master's), University of Worcester.  

Chang, C.-Y. (2010). A study on tourist harassment perspective from the techniques of neutralization. (Masters), National University Kaohsiung of Hospitality & Tourism Taiwan. Retrieved from http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh?docid=U0018-2807201014413600

Skipper, T. (2009). Understanding tourist-host interactions and their influence on quality tourism experiences. (Masters of Arts), Wilfred Laurier University, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved from http://scholars.wlu.ca/etd/949

Mopeli, M. J. (2009). The impact of tourists' perceptions of safety and security on tourism marketing of Mpumalanga (Masters), Durban University of Technology.  Retrieved from https://openscholar.dut.ac.za/handle/10321/482

Other Scholarly Papers

Nicely, A., & Selvia, A. (2019). Socioeconomic predictors of visitor harassment: Why knowing vendor migration patterns is important. Visitor Harassment Research Unit Yellow Paper Series. School of Hospitality & Tourism Management. Purdue University. West Lafayette, Indiana. LINK: https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/htmvh/1


The Travel Foundation. (2013). An all-inclusive approach to improving livelihoods and reducing tourist hassle. Retrieved from UK: http://www.thetravelfoundation.org.uk/green_business_tools/reducing_tourist_hassle

Griffin, C. (2003). The Caribbean Tourism Integrated Standards Project: Analysis and policy recommendations re harassment of and crime committed by and against tourists in the Caribbean.  Retrieved from San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Newsletter Articles

Selvia, A. (Spring, 2017). An undergraduate perspective on visitor harassment research at Purdue. The Boilerplate. The School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University. West Lafayette IN, U.S.A

Nicely, A. (Spring, 2015.) Visitor harassment research report card. The Boilerplate. The School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University. West Lafayette IN, U.S.A. Link: https://www.purdue.edu/hhs/htm/research/visitor-harassment-research-unit/documents/Visitor%20Harassment%20Boilerplate%20article%2020151.pdf


Visitor (Tourist) Harassment-Related Publications

Journal Articles

Forkuor, J. B., Akuoko, K. O., & Yeboah, E. H. (2017). Negotiation and management strategies of street vendors in developing countries: A narrative review. SAGE Open, 7(1), 2158244017691563. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244017691563

Guanghui Qiao, Nan Chen & Bruce Prideaux (2017) Understanding interactions between beggars and international tourists: The case of China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(3), 272-283, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2016.1233891

Mawby, R., Tec ˘au, A., Constantin, C., Chit, u., I., & Tescas, i., B. (2016). Addressing the security concerns of locals and visitors for the sustainable development of tourist destinations. Sustainability, 8(6), 524. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8060524

Kozak, M. (2016). Bargaining behavior and the shopping experiences of British tourists on vacation. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33(3), 313-325. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2015.1051199

Hall, A. (2012). The response of the tourism industry in Jamaica to crime and the threat of terrorism. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 4(1), 59-72. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17554211211198598

Cowell, N., McDavid, H., & Saunders, T. (2012). Managing guest security in a high-violence society. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 4(1), 32-47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17554211211198570

Harris, L. C. (2012). 'Ripping off' tourists: An empirical evaluation of tourists' perceptions and service worker (mis)behavior. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 1070-1093. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2011.12.002

Steel, G. (2012). Whose paradise? Itinerant street vendors' individual and collective practices of political agency in the tourist streets of Cusco, Peru. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 36(5), 1007-1021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01153.x

Steel, G. (2012). Local encounters with globetrotters: Tourism’s potential for street vendors in Cusco, Peru. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 601-619. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2011.08.002

Yankholmes, A. K. and Akyeampong, O. A. (2010). Tourists' perceptions of heritage tourism development in Danish‐Osu, Ghana. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(5), 603-616. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.781

Dwivedi, M. (2009). Online destination image of India: A consumer-based perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(2), 226-232. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110910935714

Asiedu, A. B., & Agyei-Mensah, S. (2008). Traders on the run: Activities of street vendors in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography, 62(3), 191-202. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00291950802335806

Kingsbury, P., & Sletto, B. (2005). Critical geographies of the Caribbean and Latin America. Geoforum, 36(1), 13-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2004.05.003

Henthorne, T. L., & Miller, M. M. (2003). Cuban tourism in the Caribbean context: A regional impact assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 42(3), 84-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287503253935

Sambrook, R. A., Kermath, B. M., & Thomas, R. N. (1992). Seaside resort development in the Dominican Republic. Journal of Cultural Geography, 12(2), 65-75.  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08873639209478410

Weaver, D. B. (1995). Alternative tourism in Montserrat. Tourism Management, 16(8), 593-604. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-5177(95)00082-8

NOTE: Please notify us of important scholarly papers and reports missing from the above list so that we may include them in next May's listing. Do this by emailing Dr. Annmarie Nicely at ajnicely@purdue.edu.

Conference Proceedings

Ogundahunsi, D. S., Adedotun, S. B., & Adejuwon, S. A. (2016). Safety awareness of roadside traders in Osogbo Township, Osun State, Nigeria Paper presented at the 22nd International Conference on Urban Transport and the Environment. Link: https://www.witpress.com/Secure/elibrary/papers/UT16/UT16009FU1.pdf

PAGE CITATION (Using APA): Nicely, A. (2021). 2021 Visitor (tourist) harassment studies, scholarly papers and reports. Visitor Harassment Research Unit@Purdue.

Copyright © 2021 Visitor Harassment Research Unit @ Purdue, School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved.

Hospitality & Tourism Management, 900 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, PH:(765) 494-4643, Fax: (765) 494-0327

2020 Purdue University | An equal access/equal opportunity university | Copyright Complaints | Maintained by Hospitality & Tourism Management

If you have trouble accessing this page because of a disability, please contact Purdue Marketing and Media at marketing@purdue.edu.