Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

Immunohistochemistry General Information

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) uses immunologic and histologic techniques to detect antigens in tissues. The antigen is recognized by a specific antibody that is added to the tissue section. The immunologic reaction is visualized under the microscope by adding an enzyme, a substrate to the enzyme, and a chromogen, producing a colored reaction. IHC is a very sensitive and specific technique. For diagnosticians, it is an important technique that allows us to colocalize antigens and lesions in the same tissue section.
Neoplastic and infectious diseases are the main focus of IHC in veterinary medicine. The ADDL IHC Service offers a variety of tests for both infectious and neoplastic diseases:
  • Diagnosis of neoplasia: Often, the tissue of origin of a tumor cannot be determined with routine histology. Using specific antibodies for different tissues or cells (e.g. cytokeratin for epithelium, vimentin for mesenchymal cells, lymphoid markers, etc), the origin of many tumors can be determined with IHC.
  • Diagnosis of micrometastases: Early metastasis can be difficult to detect using conventional histology. IHC highlights the presence of single or small groups of neoplastic cells in metastatic sites. Early detection of micrometastases increases the chances of survival with surgical removal of affected nodes or by modification of the treatment protocol.
  • Prognostic markers: Some proteins are expressed in neoplastic, but not in normal, mature cells (e.g., embryonal proteins), expressed in neoplastic cells in larger amounts than in normal cells (e.g. cycle-related proteins), or structurally modified in neoplastic cells (mutant p53 protein). These changes may have prognostic significance in specific tumor types. For instance, it has been reported that the immunohistochemical detection of c-Kit protein in mast cell tumors of dogs has prognostic significance. Some of these markers are being tested to determine their significance in veterinary cancers.
  • Diagnosis of infectious diseases: Detection of antigens of an infectious agent using IHC has etiologic significance. Antigen detection can be correlated with histopathologic changes and thus can confirm the significance of a particular microorganism detected by other methods.

How to Submit Samples for Immunohistochemical Testing

  • Please complete an appropriate Submission Form, available on the Forms page, and submit with sample.
  • We test samples that have been fixed in formalin, so you do not have to do anything special.
  • Submit the sample as you would for routine histopathology.
  • Do not hold fixed samples in your office longer than 2 days as prolonged fixation may destroy antigens. As soon as you place your sample in formalin, send it to the ADDL.

IHC Submissions Antigens

Antigen
Actin Muscle
Actin Sarcomeric
Actin - Smooth Muscle
Adenovirus (blend)
Amylin (IAPP)
Aspergillus
B-cell marker (BLA 36)
CD1a
CD3
CD10 (CALLA antigen)*
CD11d
CD18 (cat)
CD18 (dog)
CD20*
CD31
CD45
CD68
CD79a
CD90
CDX-2
CD117 (c-Kit protein)
CD163
CD204
Calcitonin
Calponin
Antigen
Canine Distemper Virus
Calretinin
E-Cadherin
Chromogranin A
Claudin 1*
CNPase
Collagen IV
COX-1
COX-2
Cytokeratin 5
Cytokeratin 7
Cytokeratin 8/18
Cytokeratins AE1-AE3
Cytokeratins Pan
Cytokeratins HMW
Desmin
Factor VIII-related antigen
Feline/porcine coronavirus
Gastrin
GATA-3
Glial fibillary acidic protein
Glucagon
Glut 1
HBME-1
Antigen
Hepatocyte marker-1
Influenza A
Inhibin-alpha
Insulin
Ki-67*
Lawsonia
Leptospira (cocktail)
Listeria (O antigen, poly)
Lysozyme
Melan A
Macrophage marker/Microglia
Melanoma PNL2
MHC II
MUM 1 protein
Myeloid/histiocytic antigen
MyoD1
Myosin smooth muscle
Napsin A
Natural Killer
Nerve growth factor receptor
Neurofilaments
Neuron specific enolase
OCT3/4
Antigen
Olig-2
p63
Papilloma virus
PAX-5
PAX-8
Periaxin
PGP 9.5
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen
Prostate-specific antigen
Rack-1
S-100 protein
S-100 P
Somastotatin
Surfactant protein A*
Synaptophysin
Thyroglobulin
Thyroid transcription factor-1
Tryptase
Tyrosine hydroxylase
Uroplakin II
Uroplakin III
Vimentin


*Currently Unavailable

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