The Research Center for Open Digital Innovation is engaging in the revolution of innovation. We live an open and collaborative innovation landscape in which information and data is widely dispersed, technological systems are opened up, and organizations engage in boundary spanning innovation activities. More decentralized innovation ecosystems have emerged in which a diverse set of actors co-create novel solutions to solve complex problems in areas such healthcare, regional development, financial services, and smart manufacturing.
Global Open Innovation Executive Study 2014/2015
Research Stream: Open Innovation
In 2012, a large-scale Open Innovation Executive Survey was conducted by UC- Berkeley and Fraunhofer-Society to explore to what extent open innovation was applied in large firms in the USA and Europe.
Building upon these results, there is a need to advance our understanding of adoption of open innovation at project level. Existing academic literature and theories on open innovation have regularly focused on firm-level aggregates to understand the role of open innovation in firm performance; they have not provided sufficient insights into the adoption of open innovation at a project level. The Research Center for Open Digital Innovation (RCODI) at the Purdue University and the Garwood Center for Corporate Innovation at the University of California-Berkeley in collaboration with Fraunhofer-Society want to address this gap by conducting this research. We implemented the second Open Innovation Executive Survey in order to deepen our understanding of adoption of open innovation not only at firm-level but also at project level. In a nutshell, in this research project, we aim to implement a quantitative survey study on open innovation among senior executives in large firms in the USA, Europe and Japan with the main focus on different open innovation practices, new practices, ways to deal with managing and sharing know-how and IP, and new ways to measure open innovation performance.
Creating Impact from Governmental Open Data (OD): The Performance Effect of Transparency in OD Contests - The Purdue IronHacks
Research Stream: Civic innovation, open innovation, transparency
Primary Research Questions:
- What are the effects of innovation performance transparency and solution transparency on participation and innovativeness of Open Data solutions in Open Data contests?
- How does transparency in open data contests affect civic participation?
- How does transparency influence the novelty, usefulness, and popularity of open data solutions?
- Are there differences in the way agencies and citizens evaluate the innovativeness of these solutions?
In a series of 'first-of-its-kind' 3 weeks fully virtual hacks known as "The Purdue IronHacks", we explore transparency and participation in Open Data (OD) solutions in OD contests. The OD project introduces the concept of innovation performance transparency and solution transparency in OD contests. We draw upon the theory of private-collective innovation, self-organizing governance and our previous research in organizing innovation contests, collective action, and open public policy and problem solving. The goal of this project is to provide a new perspective on how to promote impact from governmental OD. Using machine readable open datasets from Data.gov focusing on the areas of: Health, Energy, Climate, Education, Finance, Public Safety, and Global Development, we conduct an empirical quantitative study to explain the effect of innovation performance transparency and solution transparency on governmental OD impact.
Following a data driven and computational research approach, in a series of quasi-experimental OD contests, several hundred citizens, developers, and students will participate in a ‘virtual’ lab environment. Non-expert citizens and developers will collaborate to identify problems, share different perspectives, critical decisions, and seek solutions. The degree of innovation performance transparency and solution transparency will be measured in order to determine the effect of transparency on participation and innovation. Findings from these experiments will be implemented in larger national OD contests, such as the National Day of Civic Hacking. In sum, this study will provide evidence-based guidelines for the design of OD contests and how to utilize transparency and knowledge sharing to increase the impact of governmental OD.
Open Source Software practices
Research Stream: Open source software, open innovation, ecosystems
Reflecting the commitment to foster and build Open Source Software practices, Red Hat Inc. sponsors a two-year Red Hat fellowship for Discovery Park's Research Center for Open Digital Innovation (RCODI).
OpenStack is a set of software tools for managing and building public and private cloud computing platform. The second stage is researching how these practices can be applied to other fields as telecommunications. Through the fellowship research on architecture, governance and behaviors of heterogeneous open-innovation communities as OpenStack will be examined. Research results will be shared with Red Hat as part of a collaborative dialogue between these two groups.
Duration: 24 months
Sponsor: Red Hat
Managing Open Innovation with Business Impact in the Digital Age
Research Stream: Open Innovation
In collaboration with the Accenture Institute for High Performance (AIHP), we have implemented a series of open innovation (OI) case studies to generate new insights on how large, innovative firms use open innovation to solve their strategic innovation problems.
With the increased digital transformation of many sectors, such problems are increasingly difficult to address. Our preliminary research suggests that one of the keys to running a successful open innovation program is choosing the correct operational mode of open innovation for the business problem at hand. This requires evaluating problem complexity and knowledge uncertainty associated with a business problem.
A number of companies who have chosen to integrate open innovation have realized that there are specific management practices required to effectively execute open innovation. Open innovation problems can involve a high level of uncertainty and technological complexity, and require firms to move from traditional modes of collaboration (such as alliances) towards more open interactions with deeper exchanges of know-how and greater ambiguity such as crowds and communities. There are management challenges specific to open innovation that require a unique set of strategies and processes to be in place in order to overcome these challenges and be able to achieve higher business value from open innovation.
This study aims to create a guided open innovation framework to help companies leverage optimal value from open innovation by selecting the appropriate open innovation mode, and integrating successful management strategies to balance the tensions of knowledge sharing and protection in the midst of strategic and operational ambiguity. This framework will also equip open innovation leaders with new insights into successful practices for creating business impact from open innovation.
Sponsorship: Accenture Institute for High Performance (AIHP)
Designing Future Megacities with the Crowd: Wicked Urban Problems and Firm-sponsored Civic Innovation Crowdsourcing 2015
Research Stream: Civic Innovation Crowdsourcing
With the rise of megacities, urban innovators are exposed to increasingly ‘wicked’ societal problems, such as urban mobility. Looking beyond traditional modes for solving these problems, this research sheds light on civic innovation crowdsourcing; a new open model of innovation for solving societal problems in the public and government sector.
Increasing Creativity through Anonymous Dissent 2015
Research Stream: Open Innovation
Employees within an organization are often encouraged to contribute to internal Open Innovation Challenges, however the creativity of their contributions may be limited by their perceived freedom to express ideas and opinions that are against majority opinions or organizational norms. Troublesome ideas and opinions may impact their work reputation, standing within the organization, and even their future employment.
One option is to make all contributions to internal Open Innovation Challenges anonymous, however that would reduce the social and reputational rewards associated with participation and co-creation of solutions. Working in conjunction with Bright Idea, a leading Open Innovation Platform provider, we are testing the impact of selective anonymity, where participants can flag their contributions to be displayed anonymously. Using selective anonymity, participants can enjoy all the usual reputational and social rewards that are accrued while participating in an Open Innovation Challenge, while simultaneously offering risk-free minority dissent, which is necessary to increase diversity of opinions and inspire creativity.
We are Partnering with Landcare Research, one of seven Crown Research organizations in New Zealand, to test the effects of selective anonymity on participant contributions. Utilizing a strategic planning question that is of pressing importance to the organization, we will assist Landcare Research by running an internal Open Innovation Challenge on the Bright Idea platform, which includes the opportunity for selective anonymity, and instructions to guide participants in the importance of anonymous contributions.
Duration: 6 months (3/2015-8/2015)
Partners: Landcare Research
Sponsorship: Landcare Research, New Zealand
Social Influence and Social Contagion in Online Open Innovation-Contest Community 2015
There are increasing numbers of online innovation contests designed by organizations to benefit from the outsourcing of collaborative innovation, creativity and knowledge from a “crowd”.
Online open government community (OOGC) is a typical example of the innovation-contest community. Citizens engage in this online community to share ideas with policy makers for helping solve governmental problems. When people start contributing, communicating or commenting online it is unknown what social influence factors or competitive elements exist in innovation-contest communities that shape people’s behavior.
This project examines the effects of social influence (e.g., discussion leadership effect, peer behavior influence, preferential attachment effect) and how these factors affect people’s behavior in the OOGC community. Researchers conducted an empirical study applying quantitative behavioral analysis approach, including social network perspective, descriptive analysis, and dynamic panel data model. Data was collected from an OOGC engaged in a governmental online innovation contest in Bavaria, Germany in 2010. Results suggest the role and impact of social influence in the design of open innovation contests is an important factor to consider.
Home Energy Monitoring, Visual Analytics and Collective-Action:
Curious about how the manifold information technologies in our lives take on moralizing roles, we have undertaken an interest in theories of collective action and pro-social behavior, as there are empowering implications for information design and visualization in engaging consumers as conscious and collectively engaged consumer-citizens.
The primary research questions asked in this study is how do we visualize information in order to enhance collective awareness, and how can we encourage the alignment of individual actions to collective goals in shared resource situations? Residential energy users are a vital part of the unified effort needed to achieve the envisioned next-generation U.S. energy grid with multi-directional and sustainable energy generation, consumption and storage. Engaging the residential demand-side is important for reducing the peak-and-trough time fluctuations that have decreased the energy grid’s reliability and preserved its reliance on petroleum raising the already high operation costs. At the same time, the new home energy monitoring industry is seeking to fill the communication gap between supply and demand. Contrary to the household-centric and rational-economic engagement models of existing home energy monitoring systems that have delivered mixed results, we are looking at collective information, or, information aggregated from user-contributors -, to fill the practical and theoretical lack of collective information in eco-feedback designs. We have been identifying information visualization principles that can improve collective awareness toward a shared resources. This design science research involves a three-tiered mixed method approach:
1) a meta-analysis of existing studies to derive a set of design principles for collective information visualization for personal end-users;
2) a speculative and generative design process toward a novel home energy infoVis system, explore the application of the design principles;
3) a controlled experiment, measure the usability of the novel infoVis system and test the validity of the collective infoVis design principles .
The findings of this study advance the theoretical foundations in domains of information visualization and energy consumption, while it encourages research into man made shared resources and collective action in larger digitally connected groups. Practically, it bears great relevance to the increasingly digitizing society where digital groups and opportunities for mutually beneficial collaboration are many-fold. This research comes timely for the aging U.S. energy in need of renewal, where collective awareness and action lie at the heart of our ability to expand our reliance on renewable sources.
Duration: Jan 2016 - Jul 2017
Sponsor(s): Graduate Assistant Dean’s Award
Effect of Online Digital Communities to Members Output (Success) and Choices (Contagion): The Case NanoHUB Cyberinfrastructure:
The primary research questions that sparked this project were: (1) How does scientist output depend upon their embeddedness in digital spaces in NanoHUB.org cyerinfrastructure?; (2) What are the network formation structures and characteristics of an open digital platform?; (3) How do tools traverse (diffuse) amongst users in NanoHUB.org cyerinfrastructure?
Using data from the NanoHUB.org cyberinfrastructure analyzed using network science, spatial econometics, and network social modelling techniques, this research is aimed at comparing the network effects formed in online digital platforms of participating scientists to “traditional” research and collaboration methods.
The formation, mechanism, and process of networks that influence scientists output in digital platforms, like with NanoHUB.org, is limited and contradictory. According to Klimecket and nanoHUB.org, nanoHub.org is a novel science and engineering ecosystem comprised of self-organized researchers, educators, and professionals in eight member institutions that collaborate, share resources, and solve nanotechnology related problems. Results of this project identify the organizational and structural effects of digital platforms to members’ developmental success in addition to diffusion of tools in user community. Also, the network social modelling reveals the network formation patterns and characteristics of online digital platforms.
Duration: 2014 to 2016
Sponsor(s): NanoHUB.org, Technology Leadership & Innovation,
Keywords: Digital scientific innovation Scientific, collaboration, Social structure, Programmer communities, Network autocorrelation, Social distance.
Related Publications: Creating impact in the digital space: digital practice dependency in communities of digital scientific innovations