Safe Food For the Hungry -- II

Participant's Workbook Part 1: Food Safety

Learning Center Activity 1: Evaluating the Safety of Incoming Foods

Evaluating the Safety of Foods you Receive-Fact Sheet

Critical Can Defects:

The defects described below may effect the integrity of a can and allow microorganism or other foriegn material to enter the can. Cans exhibiting any of these defects should be discarded.
  • Swollen Cans - can indicates the presence of microbial spoilage or a reaction product with the metal can material causing hydrogen gas production. **Never taste product from a swollen can!! Throw it away!!**
  • Sharp dent on the seam - a sharp dent on either the top or side seam can damage the seam and allow microorganisms to enter the can. Discard cans with sharp dents on any seam.
  • Holes, fractures, or punctures - microorganisms can enter. Discard cans with these defects.
  • Rust severe enough to cause pitting - means that the tin plate surface of the metal is corroded and that the other layers of metal may also be affected. There may be tiny holes you can't see. Discard cans with pitted rust. Surface rust that you can remove by rubbing is not serious. You can keep these cans.
Critical Bottle Defects:

Bottles with any of the following defects should be discarded:
  • Chipped necks and threads - glass could break off into the product.
  • Cracks - microorganisms can enter.
  • Discoloration - the product is old or contaminated.
Critical Paperboard Carton Defects:

Product in a paperboard carton, like those typically used for cereal or pasta, may be acceptable even if it appears severely damaged providing the inner pouch is intact. Open damaged cartons and check to see if the inner pouch is sealed. If it is, the product is acceptable. If it is not, discard the product.

Tamper evident indicators (freshness seals):

The law requires tamper evident packaging for over the counter drugs. Although this type of packaging is not required on food packages, many food companies have voluntarily used tamper evident indicators or freshness seals for a variety of food packages. Packages with missing or damaged freshness seals should be discarded. The following lists some commonly used tamper evident indicators:
  • Inner membrane - foil and/or plastic liner on inside of bottle or plastic tub. Products that use inner membranes include dairy products, snack foods and ketchup bottles.
  • Tear away ring - plastic band that must be torn off to open package and the ring does not remain on the package. Products that use tear away rings include cottage cheese and milk.
  • Break away ring - attached to base of screw cap lid. When the cap is twisted off, the plastic band will break away from the base of the cap and remain on the neck of the bottle to indicate that the bottle has been opened. Products using break away rings include carbonated beverage bottles and salad dressing bottles.
  • Pop up button cap - button pops up when jar is opened and vacuum seal is broken. Products using pop up button caps include baby food and mushroom jars.
  • Shrink band - band of plastic around cap and neck of a bottle that must be torn and removed to open the bottle. Products using shrink bands include peanut butter jars and pancake syrup bottles.

1. Frozen Food Decisions

Type of Food Partially Frozen
(some ice crystals)
Completely Thawed
still cold (below 40 oF)
Completely Thawed
warm (above 40 oF)
Meats
(beef, veal, lamb, pork)
refreeze cook and serve
cook and refreeze
discard
Poultry
(chicken, turkey, cornish game hen, etc.)
refreeze cook and serve
cook and refreeze
discard
Organ Meatss
(liver, kidney, heart)
Use within 48 hours
DO NOT REFREEZE
cook and serve discard
Fish and Shellfish refreeze cook and serve
cook and refreeze
discard
Combination Dishess
(stews, casseroles, meat pies)
cook and serve
cook and refreeze*
cook and serve discard
Dairy Itemss
(milk, cheese, butter)
refreeze refreeze or refrigerate discard
Producee
(vegetables, fruits)
refreeze cook and serve
cook and refreeze
discard
Juices refreeze refreeze discard
Baked Goods
(bread, fruit pies, plain cakes)
refreeze refreeze serve

*Refreeze only those dishes containing raw ingredients. Do not refreeze previously cooked dishes. +Discard warm fruit pies.

2. Refrigerated Foods:

  • Milk: Discard if held above 40 oF over 2 hours.
  • Fruit Juices: Generally safe unrefrigerated for short periods, but discard if cloudy, moldy, or fermented.
  • Eggs - fresh or hard boiled: Discard if held above 40 oF over\ 2 hours.
  • Hard cheeses, butter, margarine: Generally safe unrefrigerated if well-wrapped, but discard if mold or rancid odor develops.
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables: Generally safe unrefrigerated, but discard if mold, yeasty odor, or slimy texture develops.
  • Fresh meats and poultry: Discard if held above 40 oF over 2 hours.
  • Lunch meats and hot dogs: Discard if held above 40 oF over 2 hours.
  • Mayonnaise (opened): Discard if held above 40 oF over 2 hours.

3. Prepared Foods

Discard prepared foods that are between 50 and 135 oF. Be sure to take the temperature at the edge of the package-where it will warm up or cool down first.

Using a Food Thermometer Fact Sheet

A food thermometer is essential for all operations that handle food.

To use a food thermometer:
  1. Make sure the thermometer and case are clean (wash, rinse, sanitize, and air dry thermometer before and after each use.)
  2. When cooking, take the temperature in the center of the food. When receiving perishable foods, check the temperature at the edge of the food.
  3. Insert the sensor area (bottom 2 inches) of the thermometer into the food. Wait for the needle to stop moving. Take the temperature reading after the needle has been still for 15 seconds.
  4. Recalibrate or adjust thermometer accuracy periodically.
To calibrate a food thermometer:

Recalibrate or adjust the accuracy of your thermometer periodically, after an extreme temperature change (such as going from hot food to frozen food), and if the thermometer is dropped.

Use the ice point method for cold foods or the boiling point method for hot foods.

Ice Point Method:
  1. Insert the sensing area of the thermometer into a container with half water and half ice.
  2. Wait until the indicator stops moving.
  3. Adjust the calibration nut so that the indicator reads 32 deg F (0 deg C).
Boiling Point Method:
  1. Insert the sensing area into boiling water.
  2. Wait until the indicator stops moving.
  3. Adjust the cabration nut so that the indicator reads 212 deg F (100 deg C).
Note: The boiling point differs with altitude. The boiling point lowers about 1 deg F (0.6 deg C) for each 550 feet above sea level.

Shelf-Stable Food Evaluation Worksheet


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Code   |  Type of     | Accept or Reject/Comments
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       |  pouch)      |
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Perishable Food Safety Quiz

  1. Mary and John, two volunteers in a local soup kitchen, disagree about how to take the temperature of perishable foods. Mary says that the temperature should be taken in the center of the food, because that's the last place to get hot or cold. John insists that the temperature should be taken at the edge, because that's the first place to change. Who is right?
  2. The chili dinner at the church is canceled due to a snow storm. Estelle takes a huge pot of hot chili to the homeless shelter. The shelter staff has already prepared dinner for the night. What should they do with the chili?
  3. A truck load of assorted donated foods arrive at the food bank. The truck is not refrigerated and it's a hot August day. Which of the foods listed below can you keep? Which should you discard?
Food
  • bread
  • mustard
  • mayonaise (unopened)
  • canned/bottled fruit juice
  • eggs
  • hard cheese
  • butter
  • fresh fruit
  • lunch meat
  • apple pie yogurt
  • milk
  • poultry

Perishable Food Safety Quiz-KEY

  1. Mary and John, two volunteers in a local soup kitchen, disagree about how to take the temperature of perishable foods. Mary says that the temperature should be taken in the center of the food, because that's the last place to get hot or cold. John insists that the temperature should be taken at the edge, because that's the first place to change. Who is right?

    Depending on the situations, both Mary and John are right. When food is cooking, you want to check the temperature in the part of the food that will get hot last. That means, the center. When you receive food, you want to check the temperature in the part of the food that will change first. That means at the edge. Remember, to heat leftovers to at least 165 deg F.


  2. The chili dinner at the church is canceled due to a snow storm. Estelle takes a huge pot of hot chili to the homeless shelter. The shelter staff has already prepared dinner for the night. What should they do with the chili?

    The chili should be refrigerated or frozen for use at a later time. The shelter staff has several options for safely cooling the chili.
    • Divide the chili into a number of small containers and refrigerate or freeze immediately.
    • Place all of the chili in one large shallow container (chili is no more than 2 inches deep) and refrigerate or freeze.
    • Place the large pot of chili in an ice water bath and stir every 10 minutes until the temperature reaches 40 deg F, refrigerate or freeze.

  3. A truck load of assorted donated foods arrive at the food bank. The truck is not refrigerated and it's a hot August day. Which of the foods listed below can you keep? Which should you discard?
Food
  • bread: Keep if no signs of mold or spoilage.
  • mustard: Keep if container is sealed properly and no signs of spoilage.
  • mayonaise (unopened): Keep if container is sealed properly and no signs of spoilage.
  • canned/bottled fruit juice: Keep if container is sealed and liquid is not cloudy.
  • eggs: Discard
  • hard cheese: Keep if in manufacturers package and in good condition with no signs of mold or spoilage. ** Note: soft cheeses must be discarded if not kept below 40 deg F. **
  • butter: Keep if in good condition and no signs of rancidity.
  • fresh fruit: Keep
  • lunch meat: Discard
  • apple pie: Keep
  • yogurt: Keep and use promply
  • milk: Discard
  • poultry: Discard

Learning Center Activity 2: The Microbial Zoo

Bacterial Plating Experiment - Discussion Sheet

The nutrient agar in the petri plates is a general purpose food source for microorganisms. Although not all microorganisms like it, many do and will grow.

Use the information on this page when examining the petri plate display. Note the following characteristics.
  • # colonies seen
  • color of colonies
  • presence of fuzziness
  • shape of colony (blob)
  • any other characteristic observed
It is not important to identify the organisms on the plates. These plates illustrate the fact that microorganisms are everywhere and can grow under favorable conditions.
  • Fuzzy things are molds. You will frequently see molds that are green, black, or white. Some molds are good, like the Penicillium mold that provides us with the antibiotic, penicillin. Some molds produce toxins that can make us very sick. Some molds make our food look, taste, or smell bad.
  • Blobs that aren't fuzzy may be bacteria or yeasts. Some yeasts are used to make foods, like the yeast that makes bread rise or the yeast that turns the sugar in grapes to alcohol in wine.
  • Each blob is a colony. Each colony is made up of millions of individual cells. Each colony started out as a single cell (one microorganism).
  • Note the different colors and shapes of the colonies.
  • Remember that some of the microorganisms on the plates can make you sick, some of them can be used for good things, and many are neither good nor bad.
Don't open the petri plates!!

Be sure to wash your hands after handling the petri plates!!!


Microbial Zoo Worksheet

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Code   |  Description              |  Suspected Source of
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       |  type of colonies,        |
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          amount of growth)        |
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Learning Center Activity 3: Glowing Germs

Handwashing Fact Sheet

Bacteria are everywhere. Some of them are useful, many of them are neither good nor bad, but a few can make us sick. Many bacteria get from place to place by hitchhiking on people. They can be found in the folds of skin, in our noses and throats, on our hair, and under our fingernails. We can also pick up bacteria from things we touch. Bacteria can be transferred to food from dirty hands, dirty aprons, utensils, food contact surfaces, and equipment. More than 16% of foodborne disease outbreaks have been traced to poor personal hygiene of people working with food.

People that handle food can keep harmful bacteria out of food by practicing good personal hygiene. Simple steps like bathing or showering every day before going to work and wearing a clean uniform or apron can help. Washing hands often and properly is also very important. You should always wash your hands:
  • before you handle food
  • after using the bathroom
  • after eating or drinking
  • after smoking or chewing tobacco
  • after handling dirty plates or garbage
  • after working with raw foods
  • after touching other parts of your body like your nose, mouth, hair, and skin
  • after handling dirty utensils, objects, or equipment.
To wash hands properly you should:
  • use soap and hot water
  • wash for at least 20 seconds
  • dry with a single use towel.
Remember that bacteria are tenacious. Proper hand washing will remove many microorganisms, but some may remain.

Hand Washing-When?

  • Before handling food.
  • After using the bathroom.
  • After sneezing or coughing.
  • After eating, drinking, or smoking.
  • After handling garbage or dirty dishes.
  • After working with raw foods.
  • After touching your body (hair, nose, mouth, skin, ...).

Hand Washing-How?

  • Use soap and hot water.
  • Wash for at least 20 seconds.
  • Be sure to get between fingers and under nails.
  • Dry with a single use towel.

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