Robert Proctor

Degree: Ph.D. Texas at Arlington, 1975

Research Interests:

My research focuses on selection and control of action. I also conduct research in human factors, human-computer interaction, and the cybersecurity. 

Recent Publications:

Woo, S. E., Tay, L., & Proctor, R. W. (Eds.). (2020). Big data in psychological research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Xiong, A., Proctor, R. W., & Li, N. (2020). Evolution of phishing attacks: Challenges and opportunities for humans to adapt to the ubiquitous connected world. In M. Mouloua & P. A. (Eds.), Human performance in automated and autonomous systems: Emerging issues and practical perspectives (pp. 237-257). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Chong, I., & Proctor, R. W. (2020). On the evolution of a radical concept: Affordances according to Gibson and their subsequent use and development. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 15, 117 –132.

Chong, I., Proctor, R. W., Li, N., & Blocki, J. (2020). Surviving in the digital environment: Does survival processing provide an additional memory benefit to password generation strategies? Journal of Applied Research on Memory and Cognition, 9, 345-354.

Hung, Y.-H., Choi, J. Y., Willis, M., Proctor, R. W., Hennes, E. P., & Lane, S. P. (2020). User-centered decision-aiding process for selecting power analysis tools. Proceedings of the 64th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Kim, K., Ok, C., & Proctor, R. W. (2020). What customers want from smart devices: Investigating explicit and implicit success factors. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 18, 242-245.

Kim, K., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2020). Emotional factors and physical properties of ballpoint pens that affect user satisfaction: Implications for pen and stylus design. Applied Ergonomics, 85, 103067.

Luo, C., & Proctor, R. W. (2020). Shared mechanisms underlying the location-, word- and arrow-based Simon effects. Psychological Research, 84, 1655–1667.

Luo, C., & Proctor, R. W. (2020). The location-based Simon effect: Reliability of ex-Gaussian analysis. Memory & Cognition, 48, 42–50.

Park, J., Adamo-Villani, N., & Proctor, R. W. (2019). Does a character’s visual style affect audience empathy and sympathy? In S. Yamamoto & H. Mori (Eds.), Human interface and the management of information. Visual information and knowledge management (pp. 476-488). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Proctor, R. W., & Chong, I. (2020). Parallel development of James J. Gibson’s ecological and Paul M. Fitts’s information-processing approaches to perception and performance. American Journal of Psychology, 133, 89-106.

Proctor, R. W., & Xiong, A. (2020). From small-scale experiments to big data: Challenges and opportunities for experimental psychologists. In S. E. Woo, L, Tay, & R. W. Proctor (Eds.). Big data in psychological research (pp. 35-57). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Zhong, Q., Proctor, R. W., Xiong, A., & Vu, K.-P. L. (2020). Transfer of incompatible spatial mapping to the vertical Simon task generalizes across effectors but not stimulus features. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 82, 2570–2580.

Proctor, R. W., Vu, K.-P. L., & Klonoff, E. L. (Eds.) (2019). Special Issue: Multidisciplinary research teams: Psychologists helping to solve real-world problems. American Psychologist, 74 (no. 3).
Introduction: Proctor, R. W., & Vu, K.-P. L. (2019). How psychologists help solve real-world problems in multidisciplinary research teams: Introduction to the special issue. American Psychologist, 74, 271-277.

Chong, I., Xiong, A., & Proctor, R. W. (2019). Human factors in the privacy and security of the Internet of Things. Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications, 27 (3), 5–10.

Janczyk, M., Xiong, A., & Proctor, R. W. (2019). Stimulus-response and response-effect compatibility with touchless gestures and moving action effects. Human Factors, 61, 1297-1314.

Luo, C., & Proctor, R. W. (2019). How different direct association routes influence the indirect route in the same Simon-like task. Psychological Research, 83, 1733-1748.

Moore, S. R., Ge, H., Li, N., & Proctor, R. W. (2019). Cybersecurity for Android applications: Permissions in Android 5 and 6. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 35, 630-640.

Seibold, J. C., Koch, I., Nolden, S., Proctor, R. W., Vu, K.-P. L., & Schuch, S (2019). Response repetitions in auditory task switching: The influence of spatial response distance and of the response-stimulus interval Acta Psychologica. Article 102875.

Song, X., Yia, F., Zhang, J., & Proctor, R. W. (2019). Left is “good”: Observed action affects the association between horizontal space and affective valence. Cognition, 193, Article 104030.

Xiong, A., Proctor, R. W., Yang, W., & Li, N. (2019). Effects of embedding anti-phishing training within cybersecurity warnings. Human Factors, 61, 577-595.

Xiong, A., Proctor, R. W., & Zelaznik, H. N. (2019). Visual salience, not the graspable part of a pictured eating utensil, grabs attention. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 81, 1454–1463.

Yamaguchi, M., & Proctor, R. W. (2019). Modes of spatial coding in the Simon task. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 31, 343-352.

Proctor, R. W., & Van Zandt, T. (2018). Human factors in simple and complex systems (3rd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Proctor, R. W., & Xiong, A. (2018). Experience, skill acquisition, and deliberate practice. In D. Z. Hambrick, G. Campitelli, & B. N. Macnamara (Eds.). The science of expertise: Behavioral, neural, and genetic approaches to complex skill (pp. 235-243). New York: Routledge.

Xiong, A., & Proctor, R. W. (2018). The role of task space in action control: Evidence from research on instructions. In K. D. Federmeier (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Vol. 69; pp. 325-364). Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.

Ahn, J., Kim, K., & Proctor, R. W. (2018). Comparison of mobile Web browsers for smartphones. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 58, 10-18.

Chen, J., Ge, H., Mishler, S., Hu, B. Yang, W., Li, N., & Proctor, R. W. (2018). The description-experience gap in the effect of warning reliability on user trust and performance in a phishing detection context. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 119, 35-47.

Chen, J., Ge, H., Moore, S., Yang, W., Li, N., & Proctor, R. W. (2018). Display of major risk categories for Android apps. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 24, 306-330.

Chong, I., Ge, H., Li, N., & Proctor, R. W. (2018). Influence of privacy priming and security framing on mobile app selection. Computers & Security, 78, 143-154.

Luo, C., & Proctor, R. W. (2018). The location-, word- and arrow-based Simon effects: An ex-Gaussian analysis. Memory & Cognition, 46, 497–506.

Proctor, R. W., & Schneider, D. W. (2018). Hick’s law for choice reaction time: A review. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 1281–1299.

Proctor, R. W., & Xiong, A. (2018). Taking into consideration explanations of perception-action interactions that may be “less dramatic, but more reflective of what happens in the real world”. (Invited article for issue honoring Bruce Bridgeman). Consciousness and Cognition64, 176-182.

Shin, Y. K., & Proctor, R. W. (2018). Evidence for distinct steps in response preparation from a delayed response paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 191, 42-51.

Xiong, A., & Proctor, R. W. (2018). Information processing: The language and analytical tools for cognitive psychology in the information age. (special research topic, "History of Psychology as a Scientific Discipline"). Frontiers in Psychology: Cognition9, Article 1270.

Yamaguchi, Y., Chen, G., Mishler, S., & Proctor, R. W. (2018). Flowers and spiders in stimulus-response compatibility: Does affective valence influence task-set retrieval or response selection? Cognition and Emotion, 32, 1003-1017.

Zhong, Q., Xiong, A., Vu, K.-P. L., & Proctor, R. W. (2018). Vertically arrayed stimuli and responses: Transfer of incompatible spatial mapping to Simon task occurs regardless of response-device orientation. Experimental Brain Research, 236, 175-185.

Bhalerao, B. N., Dunston, P. S., & Proctor, R. W. (2017). Use of PC-based simulators to train operation of a hydraulic excavator: Audiovisual instruction versus hands-on exploration. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 33, 67-74.

Johnson, A., & Proctor, R. W. (2017). Skill acquisition and training: Achieving expertise in simple and complex tasks. New York: Routledge.

Chen, J., & Proctor, R. W. (2017). The role of task framing in decision making: An information processing approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146, 543-568.

Luo, C., & Proctor, R. W. (2017). How different location modes influence responses in a Simon like task. Psychological Research, 81, 1125-1134.

Proctor, R. W., Lien, M.-C., & Thompson, L. (2017). Do silhouettes and photographs produce fundamentally different object-based correspondence effects? Cognition, 169, 91-101.

Proctor, R. W., & Xiong, A. (2017). Can cognitive analytic-abstractive research provide a bridge between functional and cognitive psychologists? Commentary on De Houwer, Hughes, and Barnes-Holmes (2017). Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 6, 34-39.

Proctor, R. W., & Xiong, A. (2017). The method of negative instruction: Herbert S. Langfeld’s and Ludwig R. Geissler’s 1910-1913 insightful studies. American Journal of Psychology, 130, 11-21.

Tomko, L., & Proctor, R. W. (2017). Crossmodal spatial congruence effects: Visual dominance in conditions of increased and reduced selection difficulty. Psychological Research, 81, 1035-1050.

Song, X., Chen, J., & Proctor, R. W. (2017). Role of hand dominance in mapping preferences for emotional-valence words to keypress responses. Acta Psychologica, 180, 33-39.

Xiong, A., Proctor, R. W., Yang, W., & Li, N. (2017). Is domain highlighting actually helpful in identifying phishing webpages? Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 59, 640-660.

Kim, K., Lim, J. H., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2016). User satisfaction with tablet PC features.  Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 26, 149-158.

Kim, K., Seok, H., & Proctor, R. W. (2016). Comparison of national e-health implementation in the United States and Korea. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 26, 692-699.

Lien, M.-C., Pederson, L., & Proctor, R. W. (2016). Stimulus-response correspondence in go-nogo tasks and choice tasks: Are reactions altered by the presence of an irrelevant salient object? Psychological Research, 80, 912–934.

Luo, C., & Proctor, R. W. (2016). Perceptual grouping of objects occupied by target and flankers affects the target-flanker interference. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78, 251–263.

Luo, C., & Proctor, R. W. (2016). Transfer of an implied incompatible spatial mapping to a Simon task. Acta Psychologica, 164, 81-89.

Murchison, N. M.*, & Proctor, R. W. (2016). Intentional control of visual processing benefits from referential objects. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23, 1164–1169.

Proctor, R. W., & Kim, S.-H.* (2016). 100 years of human factors and ergonomics at Purdue University: The interdisciplinary legacy. Ergonomics in Design, 24 (1), 31-34.

Proctor, R. W., & Urcuioli, P. (2016). Functional relations and cognitive psychology: Lessons from human performance and animal research. International Journal of Psychology, 51, 58-63. (Invited special issue, “Building Bridges between Functional and Cognitive Psychology.”)

Proctor, R. W., & Vu, K.-P. L. (2016). Principles for designing interfaces compatible with human information processing. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 32, 2–22.

Seibold, J.*, Chen, J.*, & Proctor, R. W. (2016). Exploring handedness asymmetries in the Simon effect. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78, 437–451.

Xiong, A.*, & Proctor, R. W. (2016). Decreasing auditory Simon effects across reaction-time distributions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 42, 23-38.

Chen, J.*, Gates, C. S.*, Li, N., & Proctor, R. W. (2015). Influence of risk/safety information framing on Android app-installation decisions. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 9, 149-168.

Chen, J.*, & Proctor, R. W. (2015). Influence of response-effect feedback on learning and performance of a complex key-pressing task: Morin and Grant (1955) revisited. American Journal of Psychology, 128, 197-208. (Special issue, Alice F. Healy Festschrift)

Janczyk, M., Yamaguchi, M., Proctor, R. W., & Pfister, R. (2015). Response-effect compatibility with complex actions: the case of wheel rotations. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77, 930-940.

Jorgensen, Z., Chen, J.*, Gates, C. S.*, Li, N., Proctor, R. W., & Yu, T. (2015). Dimensions of risk in mobile applications: A user study. In Proceedings of Fifth ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy. San Antonio, TX, March 2-4, 2015.

Konstantzos, I.*, Chan, Y.-C.*, Seibold, J.*, Tzempelikos, A., Proctor, R.W., & Protzman, B. (2015). View clarity index: A new metric to evaluate clarity of view through window shades. Building and Environment, 90, 206-214.

Luo, C., Dell’Acqua, R., Proctor, R. W., & Li, X. (2015). Lack of visual field asymmetries for spatial cueing in reading parafoveal Chinese characters. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 1764-1769.

Luo, C., Proctor, R. W., & Weng, X. (2015). A Stroop effect emerges in the processing of complex Chinese characters that contain a color-related radical. Psychological Research, 79, 221-229.

Miles, J. D., & Proctor, R. W. (2015). Attention is captured by distractors that uniquely correspond to controlled objects: An analysis of movement trajectories. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77, 819-829.

Murchison, N. M.*, & Proctor, R. W. (2015). How hand placement modulates interference from extraneous stimuli. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77, 340-352.

Proctor, R. W., & Chen, J.* (2015). The role of human factors/ergonomics in the science of security: Decision making and action selection in cyberspace. Human Factors, 57, 721-727.

Proctor, R. W., & Xiong, A.* (2015). Polarity correspondence as a general compatibility principle. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24, 446-451.

Xiong, A.*, & Proctor, R. W. (2015). Referential coding of steering-wheel button presses in a simulated driving cockpit. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 21, 418-428.

Yamaguchi, M., Chen, J.*, & Proctor, R. W. (2015). Transfer of learning in choice reactions: The roles of stimulus type, response mode, and set-level compatibility. Memory & Cognition, 43, 825-836.

Proctor, R. W. (Ed.) (2015). Higher mental processes: Selections from The American Journal of Psychology. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Yamaguchi, M., & Proctor, R. W. (2015). Perception and attention: A multidimensional approach to human performance modeling. In R. R. Hoffman, P. A. Hancock, M. W. Scerbo, R. Parasuraman, & J. L. Szalma, (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of applied perception research (Vol. 1, pp. 107-125). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, A., & Proctor, R. W. (2015). Atención: Teoría y práctica. Madrid, Spain: Editorial Universitaria Ramón Areces. [Translation of A. Johnson & R. W. Proctor (2004), Attention: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.]


Robert Proctor

Distinguished Professor, Cognitive Psychology 

Mailing Address:
Department of Psychological Sciences
Purdue University
703 Third Street
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2081 USA

Campus Address:
Psychological Sciences, Room 3150

Telephone: (765) 494-0784
CV: Robert Proctor.pdf

Psychological Sciences, 703 Third Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, (765) 494-6061 FAX: (765) 496-1264

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