Stereotypes and Bias

  • Brown-Iannuzzi, J. L., Cooley, E., McKee, S. E., & Hyden, C. (2019). Wealthy Whites and poor Blacks: Implicit associations between racial groups and wealth predict explicit opposition toward helping the poorJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 82, 26-34.
  • Byline summary: This research shows that people who oppose wealth redistribution policies have deep-seated beliefs – implicit associations – that automatically link African Americans (versus whites) with poverty (versus wealth). Such beliefs that hinder wealth distribution policies for the poor may contribute to the maintenance of social inequality.
  • Updated December 1st, 2020
  • Kahalon, R., Shnabel, N., & Becker, J. C. (2018). Positive stereotypes, negative outcomes: Reminders of the positive components of complementary gender stereotypes impair performance in counter‐stereotypical tasksBritish Journal of Social Psychology, 57, 482-502.
  • Byline summary: Even positive gender stereotypes – positive general beliefs about men and women – can impair how women and men perform gendered tasks. Women who were presented with subtle information about women being warm and other-focused performed worse on a math test than women who were presented with neutral information (Chinese characters). Similarly, men who were exposed to subtle information about men being assertive performed worse on an emotion-recognition test than men presented with neutral information (Chinese characters). This reveals how gender stereotypes may be detrimental to both males and females’ performance.
  • Suggested video clip related to positive gender stereotypes:
  • Updated December 1st, 2020
  • Martiny, S. E., & Nikitin, J. (2019). Social identity threat in interpersonal relationships: Activating negative stereotypes decreases social approach motivationJournal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 25, 117-128.
  • Byline summary: Negative stereotypes not only interfere with successful performance but also harm interpersonal relationships. Female university students who were reminded that women are bad at math became less likely to approach other students, compared to female students who were not reminded of a negative math-performance stereotype. The women presented with a negative stereotype felt they didn’t belong in their university setting. This research highlights the far-reachign effects of negative gender stereotypes.
  • Updated Feburary 1st, 2021
  • LaCosse, J., & Plant, E. A. (2019). Internal motivation to respond without prejudice fosters respectful responses in interracial interactionsJournal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication.
  • Byline summary: During interracial interactions between Whites and Blacks, some White individuals simply care about appearing non-prejudiced, while others are deeply concerned about Blacks’ needs and experiences. What makes such a difference? This article emphasizes the importance of internalized non-prejudiced beliefs—an stable internal drive or motivation to respond without bias. When interacting with Black individuals, Whites who have strong internalized non-prejudiced beliefs were more partner-focused and showed greater respects to their Black partner, whereas Whites who were driven by impressions of appearing non-prejudiced tended to be self-focused and avoided interactions out of fear of appearing biased.
  • To read an one-page summary of this paper, please click the link: The summary of LaCosse and Plant (2019).
  • Updated Feburary 1st, 2021
  • Remedios, J. D., & Snyder, S. H. (2018). Intersectional oppression: Multiple stigmatized identities and perceptions of invisibility, discrimination, and stereotypingJournal of Social Issues,74, 265-281. http://dx
  • Byline summary: Social stigmas can occur in many different forms—race, ethnicity, gender, and so on. Although vast studies have focused on negative consequences of stigma (e.g., gender; Women’s experiences), less is known about experiences of individuals who have more than one identity (e.g., gender and race; Black women’s experiences) that are stigmatized—so-called, multiply-stigmatized individuals. This article highlights that individuals having multiply-stigmatized identities experienced greater discriminations and reported more stereotype-related concerns than individuals with majority or one stigmatized identity. It calls for more attentions to be paid to unique (and more discriminatory) experiences of multiply-stigmatized individuals.  
  • Suggested video clip related to intersectionality or experiences of multiply stigmatized people:
  • Updated March 1st, 2021

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