Chronic exposure studies

We conducted chronic toxicity studies to determine the long-term effects of AFFF alternatives on ecologically relevant endpoints (e.g., growth, development, survival) on water fleas (Daphnia magna), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and larval gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor).  The experimental designs consisted of a control and each of the formulations at 4 concentrations.  The 4 concentrations were selected based on the acute toxicity experiments for each species.

chronic toxicity