Got Nature? Blog

Forest management in the eastern United States is faced with many modern challenges. Professional foresters have an innovative set of management options for the maintenance of healthy forest ecosystems. But some options raise public objections when applied to public lands (e.g., types of timber harvest, prescribed fire) and the effects of some management options on forests and their native inhabitants are poorly understood. Moreover, forest lands in the eastern and Midwestern United States primarily are in small privately-owned parcels that change ownership relatively frequently. These lands are often managed for short-term financial gains rather than long-term sustainability.

As populations of some forest organisms decline, restrictions on landowners may increase because species become classified as endangered or threatened (e.g., the Indiana bat), while increasing populations of other species (white-tailed deer, invasive plants) create economic and ecological challenges. These problems are compounded by the lack of scientifically rigorous research on the overall impacts of forest management on the effected ecosystems and their components. To address this set of issues, the HEE, a long-term, large-scale experimental study of forest management and its impacts, was initiated in 2006.

Many of Indiana’s forests have been dominated by oak and hickory trees for thousands of years. The historical conditions that shaped today’s forests have changed, altering forest composition and leading land managers to wonder what can be done to maintain oak and hickory forests for the future.  The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: 2006-2016 provides an overview of findings for the first 10 years of the HEE, 100 year project.

To learn more about this 100 year forest management plan and see its impacts, check out the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment website.

If you would like to start receiving “The HEE Update,” please email Charlotte Owings, the HEE project coordinator, at freemac@purdue.edu. If you do not have an email address, you may still receive the newsletter by regular postal mail – call Charlotte Owings at 765-494-1472.

Resources

The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: 2006-2016, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: Indiana Forestry and Wildlife, HEE
The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, HEE
The Great Clearcut Controversy, The Education Store
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Wildlife Responses to Timber Harvesting, The Education Store
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Sustaining Our Oak-Hickory Forests, The Education Store
Invasive Plants: Impact on Environment and People, The Education Store

Charlotte Owings, HEE Project Coordinator
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


The Ohio River Valley Woodlands and Wildlife Workshop is designed to provide YOU with forestry and wildlife related educational opportunities to help you get the most out of your property. This one day workshop held at scenic Clifty Falls State Park will provide you with forestry and wildlife experts from Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio who will address the questions and concerns you have regarding the management of your property.Forest

The speakers offer a wealth of knowledge for forest owners, whether they have been managing their properties for a long time or recently acquired them. Anyone who owns forested land and wants to learn more about management techniques is welcome to attend.

Online registration – early bird deadline is March 12, 2019. Registrations after March 12 are $55 per person.

A few of the topics and speakers include:

10 a.m. – Deer Management, presented by Jarred Brooke, Purdue University
11 a.m. – Tree Identification, presented by Doug McLaren & Laurie Thomas, University Kentucky Extension
1 p.m. – Timber Price Report, presented by Sayeed Mehmood, Ohio State University Extension
2 p.m. – Snake Identification, Brian MacGowan, Purdue University

See link for Full Agenda along with more opportunities at this multi state workshop!

Purdue Agriculture News: Proper Pesticide to Highlight Forest Owner Workshop.

Resources:
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Agricultural Plant Pest Control, The Education Store
Snakes and Lizards of Indiana, The Education Store
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Wildlife Responses to Timber Harvesting, Purdue Extension The Education Store

Brian MacGowan, Wildlife Extension Specialist
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


Kristol in Tippicanoe county sent in question to the Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources experts (Ask an ExpertGarden) asking what resources are available to help with landscaping for a front yard and sidewalk area that accumulates water after a hard rain. She also asked for resources to improve drainage.

Purdue Extension has several articles and resources to help with this type of situation.

The resources in our Rainscaping and Master Gardeners Program shares several neat options:
Rain Gardens Go with the Flow, Indiana Yard and Garden, Purdue Horticulture
Rainscaping Program
Master Gardeners Program

Don’t miss the publications located in the Purdue Extension resource center, The Education Store, relating to the topic:
Tree Installation: Process and Practices
Planting Forest Trees and Shrubs in Indiana
Climate Change: How will you manage stormwater runoff?

For Midwest Landscapes, have a look at the Purdue Landscape Report:
Purdue Landscape Report

Try this app developed by experts at Purdue University to with tree identification and tree problems caused by a variety of factors:
Tree Doctor, Purdue Extension-The Education Store

Check out upcoming workshops available for land and woodland owners, to talk with an expert:
Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources Calendar

Check out our Got Nature? posts as well, as this is always a great resource for new information:
Got Nature?, Forestry and Natural Resources-Purdue Extension

These resources give you lots of options that match what your looking for along with experts in the field to contact if needed.

We always appreciate the questions coming in, so keep them coming. Our experts will respond quickly and give you the guidance you need for your next steps.

Diana Evans, Extension Information Coordinator
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


Not sure when hunting season starts for you? This year’s Indiana Department of Natural Resources Hunting and Trapping Open Season Schedule is now available. Below are a few of the dates in each game category when season opens. See PDF for full list of dates and details Hunting Season (pdf)

For license information, youth hunting information, private land permission form and more check out IDNR Hunting and Trapping.

Hunting Season Open

Handling Harvested Game, FNR-555-WV, video

Click the image to be redirected to Handling Harvested Game.

Furbearers
Red and Gray Fox, October 15

Woodland Big Game
Deer Youth, September 28

Woodland Small Game
Gray and Fox Squirrel, August 15

Upland Game
Pheasant, November 1

Miscellaneous Game
Crow, July 1

Hunting Season (pdf)

Resources
Handling Harvested Game: Field Dressing (Deer), The Education Store

Wild Bulletin E-newsletter, Division of Fish & Wildlife
Indiana Department of Natural Resources


Posted on February 19th, 2019 in How To, Safety, Wildlife, Woodlands | No Comments »
Person raking the firebreak where fire did creep away from the burn area.

Fire can creep through or spot in cool-season grass firebreaks where thatch has accumulated potentially leading to an escaped fire.

Join Forestry and Wildlife professionals for an introduction to prescribed fire in woodlands. These workshops will cover the benefits for prescribed fire for forest regenerate and wildlife, safety considerations when using prescribed fire, prescribed fire equipment, and technical and cost-share opportunities for private landowners.

View link for upcoming dates of prescribed fire demonstrations (weather permitting) and more information.

March 16
Learn-to-Burn: Grassland Management Workshop, Hillsdale, IN.

April 6
Learn-to-Burn: Grassland Management Workshop, Southern Indiana Purdue Agricultural Center, Dubois, IN.

These workshops are a great source of information for learning how to properly and safely burn.

Resources
Effective Firebreaks for Safe Use of Prescribed Fire, Got Nature? Purdue Extension FNR
Prescribed fire: 6 things to consider before you ignite, Got Nature? Purdue Extension FNR

Phil Cox, Extension Educator-Agriculture & Natural Resources
Vermillion County
Purdue Extension

Ron Rathfon, Regional Extension Forester
Southern Indiana Purdue Ag. Center
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


This latest cold snap could kill some emerald ash borer populations in northern states like Minnesota. But in warmer states like Indiana, the invasive borer is one resilient bug.

“These guys are pretty good at burrowing in underneath the bark of the tree and that tree helps to insulate them from the bulk of the bad weather,” says Megan Abraham, director of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Division of Entomology and Plant Pathology.

As a result, Abraham says it takes a long cold spell with really cold temperatures to kill off an emerald ash borer beetle. According to Purdue University, it would have to get down to about minus 28 degrees.

Kerry Bridges is an arborist with Tree Guy Incorporated in Bloomington. He says the emerald ash borer is not only used to Indiana winters, but it’s survived in much colder areas like Canada.

emeral Ash Borer

An adult emerald ash borer feeds off a leaf. (Purdue University Department of Entomology photo/John Obermeyer)

“I don’t foresee significant change or restriction of that bug’s reproduction and spread,” Bridges says.

READ MORE: ‘Tree Doctor’ App To Help Homeowners With Emerald Ash Borer

What’s more, emerald ash borer and some other insects have a unique way of keeping warm.

Purdue entomologist Cliff Sadof says the reason your nose starts to run when it’s cold out is because your body is trying to keep it from freezing. Mixing mucus with water lowers the freezing point. Sadof says insects like the emerald ash borer do something similar.

“But they are changing the composition of the fluids inside their body, so they act like antifreezes,” he says.

According to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, the emerald ash borer has devastated ash trees in every county in the state. Bridges encourages homeowners that are having problems with emerald ash borer to keep treating their trees…

For full article view:
How The Emerald Ash Borer Will Survive Indiana’s Cold Snap, Indiana Public Media News from WFIU Public Radio and WTIU Public Television, Indiana University, written by Rebecca.

 

Resources
New Hope for Fighting Ash Borer, Got Nature? Purdue Extension-FNR
Invasive Pest Species: Tools for Staging and Managing EAB in the Urban Forest, Got Nature?
Emerald Ash Borer, Purdue Extension-Entomology
Emerald Ash Borer Cost Calculator – Purdue Extension Entomology

WFIU Public Radio and WTIU Public Television
Indiana University


This looks to be shaping up as a tough winter for us and our trees. Lots of snow and ice are predicted for the Hoosier state and this can be a challenge for our trees and shrubs.

After a heavy snowfall, protect your trees and property with these simple tips:

Heavy limbs

Limbs bending from ice loading.

Ice on Trees

Ice accretion on hawthorn branches.

Do not shake limbs to try to remove snow or ice.
When you find your trees are bending or drooping as a result of ice or snow accumulation, your first instinct is probably to shake the branches or knock the weight off with a broom or something similar. This may cause worse damage or actually cause the branch to snap off. Stop right there! Healthy tree branches are flexible, so knocking off the accumulation of snow or ice accretion may cause them to “snap” back, potentially damaging their food and water transport system. The results of the damage may not be evident until next spring.

Trees that tend to suffer the worst damage as a result of snow and ice are upright evergreens, like arborvitae and juniper, and clump trees, like birch. And, when it comes to ice, age does not make a tree stronger; younger trees are better at actually overcoming damage in ice storms.

Hire a Professional.

Snow on Trees

Snow weighing down spruce branches.

Safely remove broken limbs.
Broken and hanging branches can be a threat to people and property. If a limb breaks off from the weight of ice or snow and remains in the tree canopy, have it removed and the remaining stub properly pruned to the branch collar as soon as weather allows. The tree will recover better when properly pruned. For undamaged limbs bending under the weight of ice or snow, don’t prune as a means of correcting the situation. Be patient. It takes time for wood fibers in the limbs to return to its natural position.

Always be mindful of walking or parking under branches loaded down by snow or ice as they may snap and fall, causing injury or damage. If a limb breaks and becomes entangled in power lines, notify your utility company immediately. Never approach a downed power line or a branch touching a utility line.

If there is substantial damage to your tree, have an arborist examine damaged branches and limbs for signs of weakness and injury for reparations. It is best to always hire an ISA Certified Arborist. To find an arborist in your area, visit the website, www.treesaregood.org

How can you help prevent ice damage to trees? Proper pruning is one way. Particularly important is the removal of poor branch attachments and weak branch structure in the tree, prior to winter. For more information on pruning, download the publication, Tree Pruning Essentials.

Full article published in the Purdue Landscape Report.

Resources
Avoid Deadly Risk of Dying Ash Trees with Timely Tree Removal, Got Nature? Purdue Extension-FNR
New Hope for Fighting Ash Borer, Got Nature? Purdue Extension-FNR
Invasive Pest Species: Tools for Staging and Managing EAB in the Urban Forest, Got Nature?
Emerald Ash Borer, Purdue Extension-Entomology
Emerald Ash Borer Cost Calculator – Purdue Extension Entomology
Corrective Pruning for Deciduous Trees, The Education Store, Extension Publications

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


How do I remedy poor branching? Is my tree at risk of splitting, and how can pruning prevent that? Corrective pruning has many implications for tree structure, health, and longevity. Developing a strong, central branch structure in a deciduous tree is critical for preventing structural failure caused by storms, wind, and ice. This 8-page publication explains the problems resulting from a co-dominant stem structure and addresses pruning strategies for correcting poor structure.

To view this full publication please go to Corrective Pruning for Deciduous Trees located in The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center.

Resources
Preparations to Prevent Southwest Tree Injury, Got Nature? Blog
When do you stake a tree?, Got Nature? Blog
Top 5 List for Tree Selection and Planting, Got Nature? Blog
Tree Selection for the “Un-natural” Environment, The Education Store, Purdue Extension
Tree Support Systems, The Education Store, Purdue Extension
Tree Installation: Process and Practices, The Education Store, Purdue Extension
Planting Your Tree Part 1: Choosing Your Tree, video, The Education Store, Purdue Extension

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on September 28th, 2018 in Safety, Wildlife | No Comments »

Deer crossing road sign.As a child growing up in rural St. Joe County, I can vividly recall the feeling of excitement when the occasional deer visited our backyard. It’s hard to believe now, but we actually placed salt licks out to attract deer for viewing. I still enjoy the sight of a white-tailed deer, but things are a lot different today – the Internet, iPods, and yes, more deer. Estimating the size of wildlife populations is a difficult task in most cases. Currently, experts estimate about 30 million white-tailed deer throughout its range. There are probably more white-tailed deer in North America today than at the time of European settlement. In Indiana, the total deer harvested today exceeds by many times the numbers harvested during my days of youth in the 1970s.

According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, there are approximately one and a half million deer-vehicle collisions in the United States each year, resulting in about 150 deaths and over $1 billion in vehicle damage. The average claim of these deer-collisions is $3,995.

While deer-vehicle collisions can happen any time of year, October to December is the peak. Most collisions occur from dusk to dawn on high speed rural roads. In Indiana, if a deer dies following a collision with a motor vehicle, a conservation officer, DNR property manager or other law enforcement officer may issue a permit to an individual to possess the deer.

Don’t Waste Your Money
Many tactics have been tried over the years to reduce collisions. Most of these have proved ineffective or at least need more investigation. One common approach that does not work is the deer whistle. Deer whistles are attached to vehicles and emit noises at moderate to fast speeds. The noise presumably warns deer of approaching vehicles, thereby reducing collisions. While manufacturers contend that deer can hear the whistles up to a quarter mile away, published studies have not verified their effectiveness or whether or not deer can even hear them. The lack of deer response to deer whistles may be because deer don’t recognize the sounds as threatening or they have too little time to react.

What can I do?
There is no foolproof way to prevent deer-vehicle collisions. Hunting is the most biologically and economically effective method of maintaining Indiana’s deer herd at an optimal level – all else being equal, less deer translates to reduced probability of hitting a deer. Fencing deer from roadways has been proven most effective at reducing accidents at specific locations, but it is very costly to construct and maintain.

So what do you do? There are some common-sense precautions all drivers can take to reduce the risk of deer-vehicle collisions. The Insurance Information Institute recommends the following driving tips.

  • Be vigilant in early morning and evening hours, the most active time for deer.
  • Use your high-beam headlights.
  • Slow down and blow your horn with one long blast to frighten the deer away.
  • Brake firmly when you notice a deer in or near your path. Do not swerve. It can confuse the deer as to where to run. It can also cause you to lose control and hit a tree or another car.
  • Be alert and drive with caution when you are moving through a deer crossing zone.
  • Obey posted speed limits and always wear your seatbelt. Most people injured in car/deer crashes were not wearing their seatbelt.
  • Look for other deer after one has crossed the road. Deer seldom run alone.

Got Nature? Blog post was also published in the IndyStar, How to avoid hitting a deer with your car, and what to do when you can’t.

Brian MacGowan, Extension Wildlife Specialist
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University


Posted on September 5th, 2018 in Aquaculture/Fish, Safety, Wildlife | No Comments »

box turle

People have been catching wild turtles and selling them as pets, leading to many species becoming endangered.  This is very dangerous for the health and survival of the turtle as well as being highly illegal in Indiana. We highly discourage you from taking turtles from their natural habitat and turning them into pets (or any animal for that matter). Here’s a list of reasons why it is not good to make a pet out of a wild turtle and what you can do if you see any turtle miss handling and turtle wrong doing.

Turtles DO NOT make good pets!

Reasons why turtles aren’t good pets:
  • Turtles require time and money for proper care, and some species can live up to 50 years.
  • Pet turtles do not like to be held and are loners; therefore, they can become boring pets for children.
  • Turtles are cold-blooded and need a source of heat. They also require an ultraviolet light for proper growth and health.
    • Without this special light, many health issues arise such as metabolic bone disease.
  • It is very important to know what kind of species you want and the care it needs before you acquire a pet turtle. Many need special food and tanks.
    • Each species has different feeding requirements, with some being strictly carnivores or herbivores. Map turtles, for example, have restricted diets that must include snails, aquatic insects and crayfish. Some species of aquatic turtles, such as the red-eared slider, map turtle and soft-shell, grow up to 12 inches long, requiring a large tank for swimming and basking.
  • Land turtles need a large pen, with sufficient substrate, properly sized water bowl, a hide area, as well as heat. Some require more humidity than others.
  • If you no longer want your pet turtle, you cannot release into the wild because it is not likely to survive.
    • It will have to find its own food, deal with the elements and deal with predators.
    • These once-captive turtles are also likely to transmit diseases to wild turtle populations.
  • Turtles can carry salmonella bacteria.
    • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that children, pregnant women, and persons with compromised immune systems avoid contact with reptiles to avoid getting Salmonella.
    • The DNR does not encourage the keeping of turtles as pets, but does allow it if the turtle species is obtained legally with a hunting or fishing license.

 

It is illegal to sell wild turtles

Many native, wild-caught turtles are still sold as pets, even though this practice is illegal in Indiana. The collection of wild turtles has caused many species to become endangered, especially when combined with habitat loss, water pollution and predators. Predators such as raccoons eat a large number of turtle eggs each year, and some species do not even breed until they are several years old, meaning that it can take many years for a population to become established. You can help protect Indiana’s turtles by helping to preserve turtle habitat, especially wetlands, through local conservation organizations or the Indiana Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program.

Help our endangered turtle species and report any wrong handling, contact DNR Customer Service Center.

For the full article, see Turtles As Pets, Indiana Department of Natural Resources.

Resources:
Turtles of Indiana, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Reptile and Amphibian Regulations, Indiana Department of Natural Resources
Eastern Box Turtle Information, Indiana Department of Natural Resources

Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)


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