Got Nature? Blog

Forest management in the eastern United States is faced with many modern challenges. Professional foresters have an innovative set of management options for the maintenance of healthy forest ecosystems. But some options raise public objections when applied to public lands (e.g., types of timber harvest, prescribed fire) and the effects of some management options on forests and their native inhabitants are poorly understood. Moreover, forest lands in the eastern and Midwestern United States primarily are in small privately-owned parcels that change ownership relatively frequently. These lands are often managed for short-term financial gains rather than long-term sustainability.

As populations of some forest organisms decline, restrictions on landowners may increase because species become classified as endangered or threatened (e.g., the Indiana bat), while increasing populations of other species (white-tailed deer, invasive plants) create economic and ecological challenges. These problems are compounded by the lack of scientifically rigorous research on the overall impacts of forest management on the effected ecosystems and their components. To address this set of issues, the HEE, a long-term, large-scale experimental study of forest management and its impacts, was initiated in 2006.

Many of Indiana’s forests have been dominated by oak and hickory trees for thousands of years. The historical conditions that shaped today’s forests have changed, altering forest composition and leading land managers to wonder what can be done to maintain oak and hickory forests for the future.  The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: 2006-2016 provides an overview of findings for the first 10 years of the HEE, 100 year project.

To learn more about this 100 year forest management plan and see its impacts, check out the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment website.

If you would like to start receiving “The HEE Update,” please email Charlotte Owings, the HEE project coordinator, at freemac@purdue.edu. If you do not have an email address, you may still receive the newsletter by regular postal mail – call Charlotte Owings at 765-494-1472.

Resources

The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: 2006-2016, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment: Indiana Forestry and Wildlife, HEE
The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, HEE
The Great Clearcut Controversy, The Education Store
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Wildlife Responses to Timber Harvesting, The Education Store
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Sustaining Our Oak-Hickory Forests, The Education Store
Invasive Plants: Impact on Environment and People, The Education Store

Charlotte Owings, HEE Project Coordinator
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


Article published: Morning Ag Clips: Citizen Scientists — Report Invasive Species
Written by: Emma Ea Ambrose, Agricultural Communication Service, Purdue University

National Invasive Species Awareness Week kicked off on Feb. 25 (Monday) and runs through March 3 (Sunday).Mile-a-minute vine

The campaign is designed to enhance awareness about invasive species and encourage reporting of invasive species from what Purdue University entomology professor Cliff Sadof calls “citizen scientists.” This includes people who spend time professionally or recreationally in the outdoors and is interested in learning about invasive species. A major tool in the fight against these species is the Report Invasive website, hosted by Purdue College of Agriculture and the Indiana Invasive Species Council. The website includes several ways that people can report invasive species, including a smartphone app from the Great Lakes Early Detection Network.

“There are not that many specialists and experts covering the state,” Sadof said. “When there are concerned citizens reporting, however, we have many more eyes and a better chance of detecting and eradicating a harmful species early.”

Please report any invasive species you come across including insects, plants, and animals to Report Invasive Species.

For full article see Citizen scientists-report invasive species, Morning AgClips.

Resources
New Hope for Fighting Ash Borer, Got Nature? Blog
Mile-a-Minute Invasive Vine Found Indiana, Got Nature? Blog
Sericea Lespedeza: Plague on the Prairie, Got Nature? Blog
Invasive plants: impact on environment and people, Purdue Extension The Education Store
Invasive Plant Species in Hardwood Tree Plantations, The Education Store
Invasive Plant Species: Callery Pear, Purdue Extension The Education Store
Invasive Plant Species: Wintercreeper, Purdue Extension The Education Store
Invasive Plant Species Oriental Bittersweet, Purdue Extension The Education Store

Cliff Sadof, Pest Management & Extension Coordinator
Purdue Entomology

 


The Ohio River Valley Woodlands and Wildlife Workshop is designed to provide YOU with forestry and wildlife related educational opportunities to help you get the most out of your property. This one day workshop held at scenic Clifty Falls State Park will provide you with forestry and wildlife experts from Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio who will address the questions and concerns you have regarding the management of your property.Forest

The speakers offer a wealth of knowledge for forest owners, whether they have been managing their properties for a long time or recently acquired them. Anyone who owns forested land and wants to learn more about management techniques is welcome to attend.

Date: March 30, 2019
Location: Clifty Falls, 1650 Clifty Hollow Road, Madison, IN 47250

Online registration – early bird deadline is March 12, 2019. Registrations after March 12 are $55 per person.

A few of the topics and speakers include:
10 a.m. – Deer Management, presented by Jarred Brooke, Purdue University
11 a.m. – Tree Identification, presented by Doug McLaren & Laurie Thomas, University Kentucky Extension
1 p.m. – Timber Price Report, presented by Sayeed Mehmood, Ohio State University Extension
2 p.m. – Snake Identification, Brian MacGowan, Purdue University

See link for Full Agenda along with more opportunities at this multi state workshop!

Purdue Agriculture News: Proper Pesticide to Highlight Forest Owner Workshop.

Resources:
Forest Improvement Handbook, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Agricultural Plant Pest Control, The Education Store
Snakes and Lizards of Indiana, The Education Store
Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment – Wildlife Responses to Timber Harvesting, Purdue Extension The Education Store

Brian MacGowan, Wildlife Extension Specialist
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


Kristol in Tippicanoe county sent in question to the Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources experts (Ask an ExpertGarden) asking what resources are available to help with landscaping for a front yard and sidewalk area that accumulates water after a hard rain. She also asked for resources to improve drainage.

Purdue Extension has several articles and resources to help with this type of situation.

The resources in our Rainscaping and Master Gardeners Program shares several neat options:
Rain Gardens Go with the Flow, Indiana Yard and Garden, Purdue Horticulture
Rainscaping Program
Master Gardeners Program

Don’t miss the publications located in the Purdue Extension resource center, The Education Store, relating to the topic:
Tree Installation: Process and Practices
Planting Forest Trees and Shrubs in Indiana
Climate Change: How will you manage stormwater runoff?

For Midwest Landscapes, have a look at the Purdue Landscape Report:
Purdue Landscape Report

Try this app developed by experts at Purdue University to with tree identification and tree problems caused by a variety of factors:
Tree Doctor, Purdue Extension-The Education Store

Check out upcoming workshops available for land and woodland owners, to talk with an expert:
Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources Calendar

Check out our Got Nature? posts as well, as this is always a great resource for new information:
Got Nature?, Forestry and Natural Resources-Purdue Extension

These resources give you lots of options that match what your looking for along with experts in the field to contact if needed.

We always appreciate the questions coming in, so keep them coming. Our experts will respond quickly and give you the guidance you need for your next steps.

Diana Evans, Extension Information Coordinator
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


How do I remedy poor branching? Is my tree at risk of splitting, and how can pruning prevent that? Corrective pruning has many implications for tree structure, health, and longevity. Developing a strong, central branch structure in a deciduous tree is critical for preventing structural failure caused by storms, wind, and ice. This 8-page publication explains the problems resulting from a co-dominant stem structure and addresses pruning strategies for correcting poor structure.

To view this full publication please go to Corrective Pruning for Deciduous Trees located in The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center.

Resources
Preparations to Prevent Southwest Tree Injury, Got Nature? Blog
When do you stake a tree?, Got Nature? Blog
Top 5 List for Tree Selection and Planting, Got Nature? Blog
Tree Selection for the “Un-natural” Environment, The Education Store, Purdue Extension
Tree Support Systems, The Education Store, Purdue Extension
Tree Installation: Process and Practices, The Education Store, Purdue Extension
Planting Your Tree Part 1: Choosing Your Tree, video, The Education Store, Purdue Extension

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on October 26th, 2018 in Forestry, Plants | No Comments »
Figure 1

Figure 1. Bark cracking due to Southwest injury.

The time is now to start protecting your trees!  Now that your ears are perked up, let’s talk a bit about Southwest injury on trees.

Bark cracking (Fig.1) is a phenomenon that occurs in many species of trees and can have many causes. One of the most common types of bark cracking is termed Southwest injury. Southwest injury occurs during the winter months on the lower section of the trunk on the southwest side. This happens when there is a sudden temperature drop, for example, the sun going behind a cloud during the winter. The freeze-thaw cycle happens very quickly when there is a change from very warm to cold conditions, which results in a crack. If there is a snow pack, the reflection of sunlight on the bark will actually increase the temperature in the bark.

Figure 2

Figure 2. Snow can increase the reflection of sunlight to the tree, thus increasing the likelihood of Southwest injury.

Usually Southwest injury occurs on thin-barked trees, such as Acer spp., Cercis spp., Malus spp., and many others (Fig. 3). A thin-barked tree lacks the amount of cork cells in thicker-barked trees, thus allowing the vascular tissue to be located very close to the bark.  Thick bark trees tend to be more resistant to cracking due to a greater lag in the freeze/thaw cycle. Trees that are under stress due to environmental factors, herbicide injury, and/or insect and disease are more susceptible to cracking.

No matter the initial cause of the crack, the common denominator of a crack in the bark is a pre-set wound. The freeze-thaw cycle during the cold months causes the point of injury to expand and contract. Like with your vehicle windshield, a small point of injury in bark will expand and contract due to sudden heating or cooling, thus causing a large crack.

Figure 3

Figure 3. Bark cracking on thin-barked species, such as maple, is common due to Southwest injury.

Any type of cracking that occurs, originates from a point of injury, such as a pruning or other mechanical injury. These are horizontal cracks that can range from <1” to the entire length of the trunk, though are usually localized near the bottom of the trunk (Fig. 4).

Once trees are greater than about four inch caliper, the likelihood of Southwest injury is diminished.  On trees four inches or less, tree guards (also called tree wraps) should be installed over each trunk.

White tree guards may help prevent this from occurring due to the reflection of the sun, preventing overheating on the bottom of the trunk (Fig. 5) In order to prevent cracking, try to prevent any type of mechanical damage that could cause cracking in the winter. Bark cracks become visible most often during the late winter/early spring. Tree guards should be removed in the spring, because the guards become a problem with disease due to moisture within the guard.

Figure 4

Figure 4. Southwest injury typically causes cracking up the trunk from close to the root flare

In some circumstances a healthy plant may heal, partitioning off the damaged area, but the bark on a plant under stress, due to drought, herbicide damage, etc., may last the entire life of the tree.

For full article, check out the Landscape Report

Figure 5

Figure 5. White tree guards can help minimize Southwest injury by reflecting sunlight. Joseph OBrien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org.

Resources
Trees and Storms, The Education Store
Pruning Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, The Education Store
Why Hire an Arborist, The Education Store
Why Is My Tree Dying? The Education Store
Weeping Cherry Trees Appear to be Damaged or Dead. Was This Past Winter Hard on These Types of Trees?, Got Nature? Blog

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on October 18th, 2018 in Disease, Forestry, Plants | No Comments »

The DNR Division of Entomology & Plant Pathology has discovered that a shipment of boxwood plants infected with boxwood blight was shipped to Indiana in May.

Boxwood Blight

The black streaks on these stems are typical of boxwood blight. Photo by M. Daughtrey, New York.

This is important because boxwood blight (Calonectria pseudonaviculata) is a fungal disease that infests members of the popular Buxaceae family, and is often transported through the nursery trade. Hosts include Buxus (boxwood), Pachysandra (Japanese spurge) and Sarcococca (sweetbox).

In total, 23 stores in Indiana received infected material in early spring (particularly “Graham Blandy” cultivar), and it’s possible that members of the public inadvertently purchased some plants.

The fungus, which can lay dormant in drier conditions, can be found on all above-ground portions of the plant and presents itself as dark leaf spots. It causes rapid defoliation, which typically starts on the bottom of the plant and moves toward the top. This fungal pathogen can move through sporulation  in water and from dropped leaves. As a result, infection can spread to surrounding plants from a single infected plant.

If you suspect one of your plants shows signs and symptoms of boxwood blight, please call (866) NO EXOTIC (866-663-9684) use the information at dnr.IN.gov/entomolo.

For more information on this pathogen see the following link extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/BP/BP-203-W.pdf

A DNR inspector found the plants at a national chain home and garden store in early October. The shipment originated at a nursery in Oregon. It was also sent to stores in 11 other states.

Upon confirmation of boxwood blight on these plants by the Purdue Plant and Pest Diagnostic Lab, the DNR required that the chain remove all boxwood from their shelves for disposal and that the stores mitigate the area through disinfection to ensure that the pathogen is no longer present and able to infect further shipments of plants.

The DNR is currently surveying for boxwood blight in Indiana. To date, the DNR has not found the pathogen, except for a few interceptions like this one.

To view all DNR news releases, please see dnr.IN.gov.

Resources:
Boxwood Blight Found in Indiana, full Landscape Report
Boxwood Blight, The Education Store, Purdue Resources

Tom Creswell, Clinical Engagement Associate Professor
Purdue Botany and Plant Pathology

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on September 3rd, 2018 in Forestry, Plants, Woodlands | No Comments »
Home Tree

Review trees on a regular basis for health and safety.

Trees provide many benefits for our homes with shade, beauty and improved air quality as just a few, however, if a tree has defects which could lead to a failure, your shade tree could become a liability. It is important to understand that tree owners have a legal duty to inspect and maintain their trees. All property owners should take reasonable steps to protect themselves and others by taking a look at trees around the property on a regular basis.  Here are some suggestions to consider in making your trees safer for everyone.

Reduce Tree Liabilities: In general, the law obligates tree owners to periodically inspect their property and take reasonable care to maintain it and this includes trees. Routine inspections also exhibit that the tree owner is actively managing their property and trees and thereby reduces their liability if a failure does occur.

When it comes to trees, it’s best to have a professional conduct risk and tree health assessments if there is any uncertainty.  However, Homeowners can look for tree defects, including dead branches, broken limbs, decay pockets or other conditions that reduce a tree’s strength. Review the tree from the top, down. Look at the tree’s crown, main branches, trunk and root area to see if there is anything abnormal. If you find easily recognizable defects like dead and falling branches, cavities, fungal fruiting bodies or newly-formed leans on a tree, consider having the tree examined by a certified arborist. This is especially important after a severe storm. Trees can easily survive normal weather conditions for many years, however, excessive winds can have a real impact.  Make certain trees aren’t removed prematurely out of fear without making an informed decision along with the arborist.

Tree Inspections

Understanding tree health and risk is challenging for tree owners. It is best to find a ISA Certified Arborist to help with identifying tree issues.

Tree leans

Recent leans developing on trees may be corrected, however, they do pose a risk and should be inspected by an arborist.

Tree fungus

Look for unusual fungal growths on you trees. This indicates decay which can lead to a higher risk of failure.

 

 

Schedule Tree Work: If risk or health issues are found during the inspection, schedule the tree work with a qualified arborist. Be sure to find a tree care company in the area that is reputable and can provide references. Also, being fully insured is another important item to be aware when choosing an arborist.  To find an arborist in your area, go to the website, www.treesaregood.org.

Inspection on a regular basis: Trees should be inspected regularly. These inspections should occur during the growing season and dormancy. Further inspections should be conducted after major weather occurrences. At a minimum, trees should be inspected every five years by an arborist, especially if there is decline and dieback present in your trees.

Article shared by: The Landscape Report, Why Tree Inspections?.

Resources:
Trees and Storms, The Education Store, Purdue Extension’s resource center
Tree Risk Management, The Education Store

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


Staked Tree

Figure 1. Properly staked tree adds support.

Stake or not to stake, that is the question!?

“No,” is the likely answer to these common questions about post-planting tree care. Trees establish themselves quite well in normal situations. Support systems such as staking and guying are, in most cases, unnecessary and can even be detrimental. Movement caused by the wind is crucial to help saplings develop into strong, structurally balanced trees.

However, in unusual conditions, staking, guying, or a similar system may be needed to hold tress upright until adequate root growth anchors them firmly in the soil. When necessary, the support system must be installed properly and removed at the appropriate time to prevent damage.

Guyed Tree

Figure 2. Guy wires can provide stability in harsh, windy conditions.

When to Stake Trees

When stakes are needed, timing depends on the environment and the type of tree.

  • Bare-root trees and container-grown trees
  • Large evergreen trees with high wind exposure
  • Open sites exposed to strong winds
  • Taller trees with undersized root balls
  • Trees in areas with high rates of vandalism
  • Threat of mechanical damage

Improperly staked trees suffer from poor development such as decreased truck diameters and smaller root systems – and may be unable to stay upright after you take the supports away. Often trunk tissue suffers from rubbing and may even be girdled by support materials. Also, due to poor development and taper, previously supported trunks are more likely to break off in high winds or blow over after stakes are removed.

Girdling wires

Figure 3. Support materials left too long can damage trees.

Proper Methods and Materials of Guying and Staking

Staking and guying a tree trunk to keep it upright can be a necessary, temporary support system, but does not compensate for poor root development and establishment long-term.

  • Guying is temporary and typically used on larger trees that are transplanted balled-and-burlapped. Three points of attachment provide the best support for these large-trees.
  • Staking connects the trunk to a nearby steel or wooden post. This is a common approach on smaller trees or containerized tree stock.
  • Underground stabilizing systems are also effective and economical for stabilizing the root balls on larger balled-and-burlapped trees. There are several commercial anchor systems available.

The cardinal sins of support include: staking trees too high, too tightly, and for too long which all cause tree damage. Improper staking can cause stem abrasions and trunk girdling. Review the anchor, attachment point, and tension on a regular basis, adjusting as needed to make certain the supports are effective and not damaging the tree. If a tree is supported, the ties and guys should be removed as soon as feasible, usually no later than after one growing season or one year. For more information see Purdue extension publication, Tree Support Systems.

Related Sources:
Stake or not to stake, that is the question?!, The Landscape Report
Tree Support Systems, The Education Store
Planting and Transplanting Landscape Trees and Shrubs, The Education Store
Latest Issue of the Purdue Landscape Report, Got Nature Post
Plant for the Sun!, Got Nature Post

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on July 20th, 2018 in Forestry, Plants | No Comments »

Tree lineThe latest issue (18-11) of The Purdue Landscape Report has been released July 17th.  This issue contains four articles about common tree care accidents, problems of tree transplant shock, leaf loss, and poison ivy.

Will my Trees Recover After Losing their Leaves?
Damage caused by defoliating insects can be quite shocking. An effective response to this sort of defoliation should be based on your understanding of how losing leaves affects plant health.

Poison Ivy
Most landscape professionals and gardeners have heard of the wise advice “leaves of three, let it be” referring to the pest plant poison ivy. While not quite as catchy, the saying really should be “leaflets of three, let it be.”

Homeowner Tree Care Accidents
The Tree Care Industry Association (TCIA) conducted an analysis of 62 civilian tree care-related accidents reported by the media from January 2017 to June 2018. TCIA is a trade association that promotes professional tree care and discourages homeowners from taking unnecessary risks caring for their trees themselves.

Common Abiotic Problems of Ornamentals: Transplant Shock
Transplant shock occurs when plants become stressed due to poor root establishment, often mimicking drought stress.  The severity of transplant shock is dependent on many factors, which include plant species, soil type/quality, moisture, temperature, growth stage of the plant, root loss from the nursery, as well as many other factors.

Please check out the full articles at The Purdue Landscape Report 

Resources:
Poison Ivy, The Education Store, Purdue Extension resource center
Planting & Transplanting Landscape Trees and Shrubs, The Education Store
Tree Support System, The Education Store
Construction & Trees: Guidelines for Protection, The Education Store

Cliff Sadof, Entomology Extension Coordinator
Purdue Department of Entomology

Rosie Lerner, Extension Consumer Horticulturist
Purdue Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Kyle Daniel, Nursery & Landscape Outreach Specialist
Purdue Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture


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