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Posted on March 13th, 2017 in Natural Resource Planning | Comments Off on No Adverse Impact Approach Workshop

Program Impacts identity


The No Adverse Impact approach to floodplain management was developed by the Association of State Floodplain Managers (ASFPM) in 2001. This managing principal was the product of a realization; that despite the progress made nation-wide as a result of the National Flood Insurance Program’s minimum standards and billions of dollars spent on structural flood control projects, flood damages have continued to increase. Since 1990 flood damage losses have increased fivefold, costing the nation $10 billion annually on average. The No Adverse Impact (NAI) approach to floodplain management was designed to help reverse this trend by providing communities with the tools to reduce the frequency and severity of flood events, and to protect their citizens now and in the future. In general, these tools prevent the actions of one property owner or even a community from adversely impacting other property owners or neighboring communities. When applied at the watershed or regional level, this approach creates a network of resilient communities.No Adverse Impact logo

What Has Been Done

Planning for the Coastal No Adverse Impact Workshop began in the winter of 2015 when staff from Wisconsin and Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant expressed interest in coordinating two additional workshops modeled on the “Great Lakes Community Resilience: A No Adverse Impact Approach” workshop delivered in Milwaukee Wisconsin in August 2014. With $2,500 workshop funding allocated to Purdue University from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Coastal Storms Program (NOAA CSP), ASFPM and Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant partnered with representatives from the Lake Michigan Coastal Program, Northwest Indiana Regional Planning Commission, and the Porter County Survey to develop a target audience, objectives and agenda for this day-long event. Specifically this workshop was designed to provide participants with an opportunity to:

  1. Learn from regionally-renowned experts and boots-on-the ground managers about the legal constructs that are central to floodplain management, planning, and hazard mitigation,
  2. Build relationships with practitioners who represent a variety of different professions: floodplain, stormwater, and coastal resource managers, land use and hazard mitigation planners, attorneys, health department staff, and local decision makers, and
  3. Discover how flooding has impacted Indiana’s municipalities and novel solutions individuals and organizations across the state are implementing to increase their resilience.

The Indiana Coastal No Adverse Impact Workshop was held on June 25th at the Hammond Marina in Hammond, Indiana. Over the course of the day, seven 30-45 minute presentations were given. The 41 workshop participants included certified floodplain managers, planners, attorneys, coastal resource managers, health department staff, stormwater managers, and local officials. In an effort to draw this target audience to the workshop , the planning committee offered continuing education credits for the following organizations and certification programs: Indiana Commission for Continuing Legal Education, Continuing Legal Education Credits; ASFPM, Certified Floodplain Manager credits; and Indiana Professional Licensing Agency, Professional Engineers and Professional Surveyor credits. The beginning of the day focused heavily on No Adverse Impact, while the second half of the day highlighted flooding case studies and other special topics. The workshop was organized in this way to ensure that all participants had a strong understanding of No Adverse Impact and common legal concerns associated with floodplain management, prior to exploring specific applicable examples and topics in further detail.


The Indiana Coastal No Adverse Impact Workshop provided participants with the opportunity to learn about the core tenants of ASFPM’s No Adverse Impact approach to floodplain management, common legal issues faced by floodplain managers and planners in the region, specific actions that have been taken in Indiana to enhance flood resilience, the value of green infrastructure, and benefit of wetlands and how they are regulated in the United States. All of the evaluation respondents felt that they could apply the information presented at this workshop to their work and that presenters had given them the tools to implement the knowledge that was shared. In addition, all respondents noted that they would recommend this workshop to others. These results are reinforced by comments that were collected in response to an open ended question regarding how participants planned to use what they learned at the workshop. Respondents noted that they would use/incorporate the information presented at the workshop into various on-going projects and initiatives, and that they planned to pass it along to others who were not able to attend through technical assistance programs or interpersonal communications.

What comes to mind when you think of Purdue Extension? Agriculture and natural resources? Maybe Indiana 4-H? Right on both counts, but perhaps you don’t know how #PurdueExtension helps build health coalitions statewide. Or how we’re revitalizing economic opportunity in Indiana’s rural regions, helping immigrants acclimate to life in our state, or offering parents programs that build confidence and strengthen families. Learn about all of this and more in the 2016 Purdue Extension Annual Report!

Purdue Extension Annual Report – 2016
Purdue Extension Home Page
What is Purdue Extension? – Purdue Extension Video



Jason Henderson, Director Cooperative Extension Service & Associate Dean
Purdue Extension

Posted on February 24th, 2017 in Natural Resource Planning | Comments Off on Tipping Points

Program Impacts identity


Throughout the Great Lakes Basin, community leaders are challenged with long-term management decisions that result in substantial impacts to ecological integrity and community quality of life. To protect natural resources and enhance community resilience in the region, it is crucial to understand human-induced ecological stress, identify indicators of natural resource condition, and determine the tipping points at which systems enter undesirable states. Watershed managers, land use planning professionals, and community leaders require data, tools, and decision making processes to identify land use limits, evaluate the environmental impacts of proposed land use scenarios, and identify critical areas requiring protection or restoration to improve ecosystem health in a watershed.

What Has Been Done

The Tipping Points and Indicators program was created to assist local decision makers in Great Lakes states with identifying impacts of land-based activities that threaten the sustainability of ecosystems in their watershed. The program includes a web-based decision support system ( and facilitated community forum to explore policy and management interventions necessary to keep aquatic ecosystems from reaching critical tipping poinTipping Points and Indicatorsts and moving to unstable conditions.

Based on 2015 user advisory board feedback and pilot evaluations, the technology team integrated new and expanded data into the system. User interface upgrades, a website homepage redesign, and templates for easy integration of future data were completed in 2016. Th
e program is continuing to expand and develop through funding received in 2016 from NOAA, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Lake Michigan Coastal Program, and the US EPA Great Lakes Program Office and the National Science Foundation. The funding provides the opportunity for collaborative work between scientists and Extension professionals at the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, Purdue University departments (Forestry and Natural Resources, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Civil Engineering, Agronomy, and Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences), NOAA’s Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research, and the EPA Great Lakes Program Office. The effort is primarily focused on developing and delivering a comprehensive community based approach to integrate watershed and runoff science with community action strategy tools to identify nutrient sources and mitigate consequences. As a result, the tool will include additional modules for informing nutrient loss decision-making at multiple watershed scales and developing adaptive management capabilities to track progress toward implementation. Additional work is being done to further identify new areas for growth and collaboration. New grants received by the research teams are helping to support considerable expansion of the tool to include invasive species, natural soundscapes/noise, ecological food webs and urban green infrastructure planning.

Extension efforts are focusing on program design and community action plan delivery through curriculum writing, forming and convening advisory boards, and identifying appropriate communities for deployment. User advisory boards have been formed with regional partners from the program target areas including: Northwest Indiana coastal communities and the Lake Michigan Coastal Program; Northeast Indiana Western Lake Erie’s Maumee watershed; Fox River/Green Bay and the Wisconsin DNR; Saginaw Bay watershed and the Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge; and the University of Illinois Resilient Watershed Initiative. The user advisory boards will provide feedback on new modeling tools, community engagement techniques, and will help to identify projects to support local implementation efforts. Furthermore, the new Purdue Extension program, Conservation through Community Leadership (CCL), is providing the framework for facilitation and action planning for the new community projects. The state-wide CCL advisory board has also provided input on program format and potential community projects. Advisory boards formed in 2016. Advisory meetings and initial community programs piloting new curriculum materials will occur in 2017.

Evidence of Program Outputs

  • Workshops and Follow on Planning Meetings = 5 events; 132 participants
    1. Research Retreat, Ann Arbor, MI, 11/10-11/11/2016 = 15 participants
    2. City of Kokomo, IN Comprehensive Plan Update, Land use and environment working group; 07/13/2016 = 20 participants
    3. City of Peoria IL Watershed Planning Meetings, 01/23/2016 = 47 participants; 02/17/2016 = 25 participants; 03/02/2016 = 25 participants
  • Extension Presentations = 2 presentations; 35 participants
    1. Tipping Points and Indicators Advisory Board Meeting, Maumee Watershed, Fort Wayne, IN, 08/05/2016 = 15 participants
    2. Indiana Land Resources Council Meeting, Extension Community Planning Overview, West Lafayette, IN, 11/02/2016 = 20 participants


Two communities completed action-planning processes using and Purdue Extension and IL IN Sea Grant facilitation expertise in 2016. The city of Kokomo, IN (pop. 57, 995) convened a steering committee and partnered Purdue Extension and IL IN Sea Grant and a private consulting firm to complete their updated city comprehensive plan in 2016. The Purdue Tipping Points team designed and led the facilitation and public input efforts for their land use and environmental quality working group. The daylong meeting attended by conservation professionals, city administrators, and nonprofit organizations resulted in prioritized action strategies for three HUC 12 watersheds that have been incorporated into their final plan.

The city of Peoria, IL (pop 115,070) collaborated with IL IN Sea Grant, Purdue Extension and the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering for a year and a half to design and implemented a research based public engagement program to support watershed planning efforts. Peoria’s Innovation Team is leading efforts for comprehensive watershed planning to inform strategies and placement of green infrastructure to meet US EPA’s long-term control plan requirements for combined sewer overflows to maintain and restore healthy water conditions. Peoria is the first city in the nation to meet long-term control plan requirements using 100% green infrastructure techniques. The Tipping Points team led diverse stakeholder groups comprised of conservation organizations, city officials, artists, and government agencies through a series of four meetings to identify community values and assets, provide education on stormwater and green infrastructure best practices, and identify the most appropriate strategies for their community. Researchers additionally provided advanced modeling techniques to inform cost effective and appropriate landscape placement of the green infrastructure practices such as rain gardens and bioswales. As a result of their planning efforts, Peoria has successfully started installation of rain gardens and bioswales, passed a stormwater utility fee, and is now embarking on additional education initiatives to raise community awareness about the new green infrastructure practices.

Feedback surveys and interviews with user advisory groups continue to provide valuable insight on the tool’s impact and guidance for community implementation and improvement. Participants consistently indicate a greater awareness of issues impacting their water quality and watershed management approaches such as education initiatives, nutrient reduction and green infrastructure practices. Furthermore, all participants indicate a willingness to recommend the program to others and intend to integrate what they have learned within the year into local planning efforts. Participant comments below reflect on the value the tool and facilitation program bring to their community planning processes: “It presented a disciplined approach to leading a group through contentious environmental issues and arriving at consensus and developing an action plan.”

Program Impacts identity


Woodlands provide a multitude of environmental (e.g., carbon sequestration, enhance water quality, wildlife habitat), economic (e.g., timber, wood products manufacturing, tourism), and social (e.g., recreation, aesthetics) benefits to Indiana residents. The sustainability of these benefits is strongly tied to stability of the resource. In Indiana, 75 percent of the 4.65 million acres of forestland is owned by families. Actions they take on their property can impact the benefits woodlands provide all Indiana residents. However, many do not understand available options or sources of assistance.

What Has Been Done

Indiana Woodland StewardThe Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, in partnership with many other organizations, helps produce and mail over 31,000 copies of the Indiana Woodland Steward to woodland owners three times each year. This 16-page, two-color publication includes in-depth articles on forest stewardship and health, invasive species and pests, wildlife habitat management, economics, and more.


Subscribers owned more woods (71.6 ac) for a longer tenure (33 years) than the average woodland owner in Indiana based on data from the National Woodland Owner Survey. As a group, they were also more active managers based on the proportion enrolled in assistance programs and who had a written stewardship plan. Fifty-four percent regularly utilized information from the Woodland Steward. In addition, 51 percent of respondents have implemented at least one practice they read about from The Woodland Steward, potentially impacting an estimated 1.2 million acres of forestland. His use of print media to communicate with woodland owners could be considered expensive, but clearly a large number of woodland owners regularly read and utilize the information making the average investment per landowner much lower.

Posted on December 14th, 2016 in Alert, Forestry, Natural Resource Planning, Wildlife | Comments Off on Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild White-tailed Deer: Background and Frequently Asked Questions

Description of Bovine Tuberculosis:
Bovine tuberculosis (bovine Tb) is a disease found in mammals caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). In North America, bovine Tb is most commonly found in domestic cattle and captive and wild cervids (white-tailed deer, elk, etc.) and less commonly in other mammals such as raccoon, opossums, coyotes, and wild boars.

Bovine Tb has been greatly reduced in the cattle industry since the National Cooperative State-Federal Bovine Tuberculosis eradication program began in 1917. Currently, most states are accredited as “Bovine Tuberculosis-Free” by the United States Department of Agriculture, however, sporadic outbreaks do still occur throughout the United States.

Cattle, captive cervids, and wild white-tailed deer are considered reservoir hosts for bovine Tb. A reservoir host is a species in which bovine Tb can persist and be transmitted among individuals within a species or be transmitted to another species. Wild white-tailed deer may pose the greatest threat to the establishment of bovine Tb on the landscape because they move freely across the landscape and may contact multiple domestic cattle herds.

In Indiana, bovine Tb was detected in domestic cattle in 2008, 2010, and 2011 and most recently in April 2016 and a captive red deer and elk herd in Franklin County in 2009. The first case of bovine Tb in a wild white-tailed deer in Indiana occurred in August 2016 in Franklin County. All confirmed cases of bovine Tb in Indiana have been from the same strain of M. Bovis.

As of Dec 14th, 2016, 2,024 white-tailed deer samples have been collected, 2 exhibited lesions consistent with bovine Tb; 1,897 samples have been tested and 0 samples have tested positive for bovine Tb.

Frequently asked questions:

Is bovine Tb transmissible to humans?
Yes, bovine Tb is transmissible to humans but bovine Tb accounts for <2% of tuberculosis cases in the United States. Most cases of bovine Tb in humans are caused by consuming unpasteurized dairy products and the likelihood of contracting bovine Tb from a wild deer is minuscule. There has been only one confirmed case of transmission of bovine Tb to a human from an infected white-tailed deer. In that case, bovine Tb was thought to be transmitted via bodily fluids from the infected deer contacting an open wound on the person during the field dressing process.
Surveillance Zones

Picture 1. Bovine Tb Management and Surveillance Zones in Indiana as of Dec. 2016.

What other states have had bovine Tb in wild deer?
Both Michigan and Minnesota have had outbreaks of bovine Tb in wild white-tailed deer. Currently, bovine Tb occurs in less than 2% of deer in the Bovine Tb Management Zone in Michigan and has not been detected since 2009 in a wild deer in Minnesota. There are certainly lessons to be learned from both states and those lessons are being incorporated in the management of bovine Tb in Indiana.
Why is bovine Tb an important issue in wild deer?
Human health is the main concern; given that bovine Tb is transmissible to humans. Additionally, bovine Tb is not a naturally occurring disease in white-tailed deer. Deer can also be a reservoir for bovine Tb potentially transmitting bovine Tb to uninfected deer and also to uninfected cattle through direct contact or through shared feeding. Because deer are free-ranging they have the potential to contact multiple cattle herds and transmit bovine Tb across the landscape. If bovine Tb is maintained in the wild deer herd, Indiana is at risk of losing the “Bovine Tuberculosis-Free” accreditation from the USDA, which has negative economic impacts for the cattle industry in Indiana.
How can deer contract and transmit bovine Tb?
An animal infected with bovine Tb can shed the M. bovis bacteria through repertory secretions, feces, urine, or unpasteurized milk. Under the right environmental conditions, the bacteria can remain viable in the environment for months. The disease is spread when an uninfected animal comes into direct contact with secretions of an infected animal or indirectly through an M. bovis contaminated source in the environment (e.g. feed pile). Deer can contract bovine Tb through direct contact with an infected animal, either another deer or cattle or through sharing feeding with an infected animal at wildlife supplemental feeding piles or areas where cattle are fed or cattle feed is stored. Deer can transmit bovine Tb in the same ways as contracting the disease. Indirect contact, by means of shared feeding, is believed to be the primary pathway between deer and cattle.
What management steps have other states taken to reduce or eliminate bovine Tb in wild deer?
Both Michigan and Minnesota have followed the same general approach to eradicating bovine Tb. Their approach consisted of (1) reducing deer density in the bovine Tb management zone, (2) eliminating baiting and supplemental feeding of wildlife, and (3) continual monitoring for bovine Tb in wild deer.
What management steps are being taken in Indiana to eliminate bovine Tb in wild deer?
The Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) and Indiana Board of Animal Health (BOAH) are considering similar steps as in Michigan and Minnesota to eliminate bovine Tb in wild deer in Indiana. First, a bovine Tb Management Zone has been established in Franklin County and southern Fayette County and a Bovine Tb Surveillance Zone has been established in Dearborn County (Picture 1). In the management and surveillance zones, the IDNR sampled >2,000 hunter harvested deer during the 2016 deer season – none of which tested positive for bovine Tb. As a result, the IDNR determined active population reduction through sharp shooting (as used in other states) is not warranted at this time. The IDNR is still allowing landowners in the management zone to request disease permit to control deer near cattle farms in an effort to reduce cattle and deer interactions. Also, feeding deer or any wildlife is banned in the management zone. Management and surveillance will continue into the future.More information on the management of bovine Tb in Indiana can be found on the Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)-Bovine Tb Surveillance and Management and the Indiana State Board of Animal Health (BOAH)-Bovine  Tuberculosis.
Why is reducing deer density important to eliminate bovine Tb?
Reducing deer density is important to eliminate bovine Tb because the disease is density-dependent and spreads more efficiently in areas with high deer densities. In densely populated areas, deer come into contact with other wild deer, captive cervids, and cattle herds more frequently, thus potentially spreading bovine Tb to uninfected animals. The purpose of deer reductions is to reduce the risk of transmission by reducing population density, removing diseased deer, and to estimate the percentage of the population with bovine Tb.
Why is banning supplemental feed important to stop the spread of bovine Tb?
One of the primary routes in which bovine Tb can be spread is through shared feeding. This is because supplemental feeding artificially concentrates deer in a very small area increasing contact among deer and other wildlife species. Additionally, M. bovis can survive for months on a supplemental feed pile. Thus, banning supplemental feeding is a critical step to limit the contact of infected and uninfected animals.
Are there any treatments for bovine Tb in wild deer?
To date, there are no effective treatments for bovine Tb in wild white-tailed deer. This is why practices such as deer density reduction, a ban on supplemental feeding, and continued surveillance are vital in combating bovine Tb in wild deer.
Deer - Lesions

Picture 2. Lesions from bovine Tb infection in the chest cavity of a wild white-tailed deer. Photo by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

How do I know if a deer I kill has bovine Tb?
The clinical signs of bovine Tb recognizable to hunters would be small to large white, tan, or yellow lesions on the lungs, rib cage, or in the chest cavity (Picture 2). However, in Michigan only 64% of deer exhibited lesions and only 42% would have been recognizable to hunters. If you harvest a deer in the bovine Tb management or surveillance zone, you should submit it for sampling. After submitting you can search for the bovine Tb test results of your submission by going to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources – IDNR’s bovine Tb management website and clicking the “Look up the results of a deer you submitted” link.
How do I submit a sample if I harvest a deer in the Bovine Tb Management or Surveillance Zone?
Check the IDNR’s Bovine Tb website for information on submitting harvested deer for sampling.
Can I eat venison from deer harvested in the Bovine Tb Management or Surveillance Zone?
Venison from deer harvested within the Bovine Tb Management and Surveillance Zone should be cooked to an internal temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit to kill M. bovis and other bacteria. Bovine Tb is rarely present on muscle tissue (meat) and the most likely way bovine Tb would be on meat would be through contamination from secretions within the body cavity.
What steps can I take to reduce the risk of contracting bovine Tb?
Bovine Tb may be transmitted through bodily secretions of an infected deer contacting an exposed wound on a person during the field dressing process. If lesions consistent with bovine Tb are found inside a harvested deer you should contact the IDNR and submit the deer for testing. It’s important to mention that the likelihood of contracting bovine Tb from wild deer is very rare, but there are some steps you can take to further minimize the risk.*Always wear gloves when field dressing, skinning, and processing a deer because bovine Tb may be present in fluids from the internal body cavity.
* Make sure to clean knives that are used for field dressing thoroughly prior to using them to skin or process a deer, or use different knives for each step.
* Thoroughly wash your hands after field dressing, skinning, and processing deer.
* Cook all venison to an internal temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit.
I own cattle in the bovine Tb area, what should I do to reduce the risk of bovine Tb from wild deer?
Cattle operators in the Bovine Tb Management and Surveillance Area should limit contact between deer and cattle or cattle feed by:* Only feed cattle an amount that can be consumed in one day
* Fence areas where cattle feed is stored
* Store feed away from deer
* Close the end of large plastic bags used to store corn, haylage, or silage and also remove any feed from the ground around the ends of the bag
* Use hunting and additional landowner permits from the IDNR as a management tool to reduce deer density around your farm
If I own land in the bovine Tb area what can I do to help stop the spread of bovine Tb in Indiana?
If you own land in the Bovine Tb Management Zone (Picture 1) you should contact Joe Caudell (812) 334-1137, the Indiana State Deer Biologist, or the Indiana Bovine Tb Hotline at (844) 803-0002.

Additional Bovine Tb Resources:
Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild White-tailed Deer, FNR-551-W publication, Purdue Extension – Forestry & Natural Resources
Bovine Tb, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)
Bovine Tb, Indiana State Board of Animal Health (BOAH)
Bovine Tb Disease, USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
Bovine Tb, Michigan Department of Natural Resources
Bovine Tb, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
Bovine Tb factsheet, Center for Disease Control

Information provided by: Jarred Brooke, Extension Wildlife Specialist
Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

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