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Posted on October 6th, 2017 in Alert, Forestry, Safety, Timber Marketing, Woodlands | No Comments »

Indiana DNR IndentityThe Indiana DNR bovine tuberculosis surveillance team earned the Excellence in Conservation Award from the Midwest Fish and Wildlife Agency for their bovine tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring efforts in 2016.

In 2016, a wild white-tailed deer tested positive for bovine tuberculosis in Franklin County, Indiana. Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease most often found in cattle and captive cervids, but can be transmitted to wild white-tailed deer and other wild mammals. The DNR tested more than 2,000 hunter-harvested deer in 2016 and did not find another bovine tuberculosis positive deer. For more information on bovine tuberculosis in wild white-tailed deer check out our Purdue Extension-FNR webpage: Bovine Tb in wild white-tailed deer: background and frequently asked questions.

Resources:
Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) Bovine Tb resources
Indiana State Board of Animal Health (BOAH) Bovine Tb resources
USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tb disease information
Michigan DNR Bovine Tb information
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Bovine Tb resources
Center for Disease Control Bovine Tb factsheet

Jarred Brooke, Extension Wildlife Specialist
Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Bagworm caterpillar.The evergreen bagworm, as its name implies, is well known for its ability to defoliate evergreen trees and shrubs like spruce, arborvitae, fir, junipers and pine. When given a chance, it will also feed on deciduous trees like maples, honeylocust, and crabapples. In late May and early June bagworms hatch from eggs that overwinter in the bag of their mother. When young bagworms begin feeding on broadleaved plants the caterpillars are too small to feed all the way through, so they leave circular patterns of skeletonization. Bagworms can be easily controlled with a spray application of spinosad (Conserve, or Fertilome borer and bagworm killer), or Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel). More control options are available on the Purdue Tree Doctor App, purdueplantdoctor.com.

View this video located on the Purdue Plant Doctor App Suite Facebook page to watch a young bagworm caterpillar poke its head out of its silken bag to feed on a maple leaf. The young caterpillar scrapes the leaf surface to feed, and cuts bits of green tissue and glues it on its back. At the end of the video it sticks out its legs and flips the entire bag over to hide from the lights.

Resources:
Purdue Plant Doctor App Suite, Purdue Extension-Entomology
Landscape & Oranmentals-Bagworms, The Education Store
Upcoming Workshops, Purdue Extension-Forestry & Natural Resources
Ask An Expert, Purdue Extension-Forestry & Natural Resources

FNR contacts:
Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Lenny D Farlee, Sustaining Hardwood Extension Specialist
Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources

Author:
Cliff Sadof, Professor
Purdue University Department of Entomology


Storm damage, trees downSafety first! Stay clear and look for dangerous hanging limbs, broken branches and other failures before beginning cleanup or inspections. Keep others clear of the areas beneath and around damaged trees. Be alert for power lines that could be involved with damaged trees. All utility lines should be considered energized and dangerous.

Lindsey Purcell, Purdue urban forestry specialist, shares, “in my experience, during storm cleanup, many tree owners are faced with the decision of what to do with their trees relative to restoration or removal”.  There are several types of tree damage that occur from violent weather. Each has its own specific assessment considerations. All parts of the tree should be inspected during a post-storm assessment. This requires the expertise of trained, professional arborists to assist with the decision making regarding the best course of action. Unfortunately, there are those who take advantage of the situation and overcharge or provide poor advice when it comes to the best decision on their trees. Don’t make any hasty decisions and be sure you are hiring an International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) Certified Arborist, ask for references and proof of insurance in the process.

View publication Trees and Storms located in the Purdue Extension-The Education Store for more information.

Resources:
Trees and Storms – The Education Store, Purdue Education Resource Center
Caring for storm-damaged trees/How to Acidify Soil in the Yard – In the Grow, Purdue Extension
Expert: Some storm damage can be easily prevented – Fox 59 News
What to do with your damaged trees – WLFI
Why Is My Tree Dying? – The Education Store
Tree Risk Management – The Education Store
Mechanical Damage to Trees: Mowing and Maintenance Equipment – The Education Store

Lindsey Purcell, Urban Forestry Specialist
Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Once aquatic invasive species (AIS) are established in a new environment, typically, they are difficult or impossible to remove. Even if they are removed, their impacts are often irreversible. It is much more environmentally and economically sound to prevent the introduction of new AIS through thoughtful purchasing and proper care of organisms. Check out this article titled Aquatic Invasive Species – Organisms in Trade for a list of webinars bringing resources to teachers, water garden hobbyists, aquatic landscaping designers and to aquatic enthusiasts.  The video titled Beauty Contained: Preventing Invasive Species from Escaping Water Gardens is also available in the article which contains guidelines that were adopted from the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council and the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force along with addressing the care and selection of plants and animals for water gardens.

Resources:
Aquatic Invaders in the Marketplace, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG)
Great Lakes Sea Grant Network (GLERL), NOAA – Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
Indiana Bans 28 Invasive Aquatic Plants, The Helm – Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG)
A Field Guide to Fish Invaders of the Great Lake Regions, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG)
Purdue Researchers Get to the Bottom of Another Quagga Mussel Impact, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG)
Lady Quagga Announces Latest Tour, llinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG)
Protect Your Waters, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service & U.S. Coast Guard

Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG)
University of Illinois Extension and Purdue University Extension


Quagga mussels, which arrived in Lake Michigan in the 1990s via ballast water discharged from ships, have colonized vast expanses of the Lake Michigan bottom, reaching densities as high as roughly 35,000 quagga mussels per square meter. The invasive species that can have major economic impacts filters up to 4 liters of water per day, and so far seems unaffected by any means of population control. It is also a constant threat to other systems, as it is readily transported between water bodies.

Researchers have long known that these voracious filter feeders impact water quality in the lake, but their influence on water movement had remained largely a mystery.

“Although Lake Michigan is already infested with these mussels, an accurate filtration model would be imperative for determining the fate of substances like nutrients and plankton in the water,” Purdue University PhD candidate David Cannon said. “In other quagga mussel-threatened systems, like Lake Mead, this could be used to determine the potential impact of mussels on the lake, which could in turn be used to develop policy and push for funding to keep mussels out of the lakes.”

For full article and video view Purdue Researchers Get to the Bottom of Another Quagga Mussel Impact.

Resources:
A Field Guide to Fish Invaders of the Great Lake Regions, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG)
Lady Quagga Announces Latest Tour, llinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG)
Protect Your Waters, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service & U.S. Coast Guard

Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG)
University of Illinois Extension and Purdue University Extension


Great Lakes Early Detection NetworkThe Forest Pest Outreach and Survey Project at Purdue reminds us that early detection is the best way to slow the spread of invasive species. You can report invasive species by calling the Invasive Species hotline at 1-866-NO-EXOTIC (1-866-663-9684) or using the free Great Lakes Early Detection Network smartphone app, which can be downloaded on iTunes or GooglePlay. View video to see how easy it is to use the app, Great Lakes Early Detection Network App (GLEDN).

If you’re interested in learning more about invasive pests and how to report them, sign up for one of our free Early Detector Training workshops!

To register for workshops and to view full article see Forest Pest Outreach and Survey Project.

National Invasive Species Awareness Week: February 27-March 3, 2017.

Resources:
Invasive Species – Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)
Ask an Expert – Purdue Extension-Forestry and Natural Resources
Indiana Invasive Species Council – Includes: IDNR, Purdue Department of Entomology and Professional Partners
Invasive Species Week a reminder to watch for destructive pests, Purdue entomologist says – Purdue Agriculture News

Sara Stack, MS student
Purdue Department of Entomology


Posted on January 4th, 2017 in Alert, Forestry, Wildlife | No Comments »
Deer - Lesions

Lesions from bovine Tb infection in the chest cavity of a wild white-tailed deer. Photo by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

Bovine tuberculosis (bovine Tb) is an on-going issue in Indiana’s wild white-tailed deer herd. Bovine Tb was first discovered in wild deer in Indiana in August 2016 near a bovine Tb positive cattle farm in Franklin County. Since August, Indiana Department of Natural Resources and the Board of Animal Health have been monitoring and managing the bovine Tb situation. A second cattle farm in Franklin County tested positive for bovine Tb in December 2016, but no hunter harvested deer have tested positive for bovine Tb during the 2016 deer season. The IDNR will continue to monitor and manage the bovine Tb situation according to a departmental management plan. View the following web page to find more information, Bovine Tb in Wild White-Tailed Deer: Background and Frequently Asked Questions.

Jarred Brooke, Wildlife Extension Specialist
Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on December 14th, 2016 in Alert, Forestry, Natural Resource Planning, Wildlife | Comments Off on Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild White-tailed Deer: Background and Frequently Asked Questions

Description of Bovine Tuberculosis:
Bovine tuberculosis (bovine Tb) is a disease found in mammals caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). In North America, bovine Tb is most commonly found in domestic cattle and captive and wild cervids (white-tailed deer, elk, etc.) and less commonly in other mammals such as raccoon, opossums, coyotes, and wild boars.

Bovine Tb has been greatly reduced in the cattle industry since the National Cooperative State-Federal Bovine Tuberculosis eradication program began in 1917. Currently, most states are accredited as “Bovine Tuberculosis-Free” by the United States Department of Agriculture, however, sporadic outbreaks do still occur throughout the United States.

Cattle, captive cervids, and wild white-tailed deer are considered reservoir hosts for bovine Tb. A reservoir host is a species in which bovine Tb can persist and be transmitted among individuals within a species or be transmitted to another species. Wild white-tailed deer may pose the greatest threat to the establishment of bovine Tb on the landscape because they move freely across the landscape and may contact multiple domestic cattle herds.

In Indiana, bovine Tb was detected in domestic cattle in 2008, 2010, and 2011 and most recently in April 2016 and a captive red deer and elk herd in Franklin County in 2009. The first case of bovine Tb in a wild white-tailed deer in Indiana occurred in August 2016 in Franklin County. All confirmed cases of bovine Tb in Indiana have been from the same strain of M. Bovis.

As of Dec 14th, 2016, 2,024 white-tailed deer samples have been collected, 2 exhibited lesions consistent with bovine Tb; 1,897 samples have been tested and 0 samples have tested positive for bovine Tb.

Frequently asked questions:

Is bovine Tb transmissible to humans?
Yes, bovine Tb is transmissible to humans but bovine Tb accounts for <2% of tuberculosis cases in the United States. Most cases of bovine Tb in humans are caused by consuming unpasteurized dairy products and the likelihood of contracting bovine Tb from a wild deer is minuscule. There has been only one confirmed case of transmission of bovine Tb to a human from an infected white-tailed deer. In that case, bovine Tb was thought to be transmitted via bodily fluids from the infected deer contacting an open wound on the person during the field dressing process.
Surveillance Zones

Picture 1. Bovine Tb Management and Surveillance Zones in Indiana as of Dec. 2016.

What other states have had bovine Tb in wild deer?
Both Michigan and Minnesota have had outbreaks of bovine Tb in wild white-tailed deer. Currently, bovine Tb occurs in less than 2% of deer in the Bovine Tb Management Zone in Michigan and has not been detected since 2009 in a wild deer in Minnesota. There are certainly lessons to be learned from both states and those lessons are being incorporated in the management of bovine Tb in Indiana.
Why is bovine Tb an important issue in wild deer?
Human health is the main concern; given that bovine Tb is transmissible to humans. Additionally, bovine Tb is not a naturally occurring disease in white-tailed deer. Deer can also be a reservoir for bovine Tb potentially transmitting bovine Tb to uninfected deer and also to uninfected cattle through direct contact or through shared feeding. Because deer are free-ranging they have the potential to contact multiple cattle herds and transmit bovine Tb across the landscape. If bovine Tb is maintained in the wild deer herd, Indiana is at risk of losing the “Bovine Tuberculosis-Free” accreditation from the USDA, which has negative economic impacts for the cattle industry in Indiana.
How can deer contract and transmit bovine Tb?
An animal infected with bovine Tb can shed the M. bovis bacteria through repertory secretions, feces, urine, or unpasteurized milk. Under the right environmental conditions, the bacteria can remain viable in the environment for months. The disease is spread when an uninfected animal comes into direct contact with secretions of an infected animal or indirectly through an M. bovis contaminated source in the environment (e.g. feed pile). Deer can contract bovine Tb through direct contact with an infected animal, either another deer or cattle or through sharing feeding with an infected animal at wildlife supplemental feeding piles or areas where cattle are fed or cattle feed is stored. Deer can transmit bovine Tb in the same ways as contracting the disease. Indirect contact, by means of shared feeding, is believed to be the primary pathway between deer and cattle.
What management steps have other states taken to reduce or eliminate bovine Tb in wild deer?
Both Michigan and Minnesota have followed the same general approach to eradicating bovine Tb. Their approach consisted of (1) reducing deer density in the bovine Tb management zone, (2) eliminating baiting and supplemental feeding of wildlife, and (3) continual monitoring for bovine Tb in wild deer.
What management steps are being taken in Indiana to eliminate bovine Tb in wild deer?
The Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) and Indiana Board of Animal Health (BOAH) are considering similar steps as in Michigan and Minnesota to eliminate bovine Tb in wild deer in Indiana. First, a bovine Tb Management Zone has been established in Franklin County and southern Fayette County and a Bovine Tb Surveillance Zone has been established in Dearborn County (Picture 1). In the management and surveillance zones, the IDNR sampled >2,000 hunter harvested deer during the 2016 deer season – none of which tested positive for bovine Tb. As a result, the IDNR determined active population reduction through sharp shooting (as used in other states) is not warranted at this time. The IDNR is still allowing landowners in the management zone to request disease permit to control deer near cattle farms in an effort to reduce cattle and deer interactions. Also, feeding deer or any wildlife is banned in the management zone. Management and surveillance will continue into the future.More information on the management of bovine Tb in Indiana can be found on the Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)-Bovine Tb Surveillance and Management and the Indiana State Board of Animal Health (BOAH)-Bovine  Tuberculosis.
Why is reducing deer density important to eliminate bovine Tb?
Reducing deer density is important to eliminate bovine Tb because the disease is density-dependent and spreads more efficiently in areas with high deer densities. In densely populated areas, deer come into contact with other wild deer, captive cervids, and cattle herds more frequently, thus potentially spreading bovine Tb to uninfected animals. The purpose of deer reductions is to reduce the risk of transmission by reducing population density, removing diseased deer, and to estimate the percentage of the population with bovine Tb.
Why is banning supplemental feed important to stop the spread of bovine Tb?
One of the primary routes in which bovine Tb can be spread is through shared feeding. This is because supplemental feeding artificially concentrates deer in a very small area increasing contact among deer and other wildlife species. Additionally, M. bovis can survive for months on a supplemental feed pile. Thus, banning supplemental feeding is a critical step to limit the contact of infected and uninfected animals.
Are there any treatments for bovine Tb in wild deer?
To date, there are no effective treatments for bovine Tb in wild white-tailed deer. This is why practices such as deer density reduction, a ban on supplemental feeding, and continued surveillance are vital in combating bovine Tb in wild deer.
Deer - Lesions

Picture 2. Lesions from bovine Tb infection in the chest cavity of a wild white-tailed deer. Photo by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

How do I know if a deer I kill has bovine Tb?
The clinical signs of bovine Tb recognizable to hunters would be small to large white, tan, or yellow lesions on the lungs, rib cage, or in the chest cavity (Picture 2). However, in Michigan only 64% of deer exhibited lesions and only 42% would have been recognizable to hunters. If you harvest a deer in the bovine Tb management or surveillance zone, you should submit it for sampling. After submitting you can search for the bovine Tb test results of your submission by going to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources – IDNR’s bovine Tb management website and clicking the “Look up the results of a deer you submitted” link.
How do I submit a sample if I harvest a deer in the Bovine Tb Management or Surveillance Zone?
Check the IDNR’s Bovine Tb website for information on submitting harvested deer for sampling.
Can I eat venison from deer harvested in the Bovine Tb Management or Surveillance Zone?
Venison from deer harvested within the Bovine Tb Management and Surveillance Zone should be cooked to an internal temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit to kill M. bovis and other bacteria. Bovine Tb is rarely present on muscle tissue (meat) and the most likely way bovine Tb would be on meat would be through contamination from secretions within the body cavity.
What steps can I take to reduce the risk of contracting bovine Tb?
Bovine Tb may be transmitted through bodily secretions of an infected deer contacting an exposed wound on a person during the field dressing process. If lesions consistent with bovine Tb are found inside a harvested deer you should contact the IDNR and submit the deer for testing. It’s important to mention that the likelihood of contracting bovine Tb from wild deer is very rare, but there are some steps you can take to further minimize the risk.*Always wear gloves when field dressing, skinning, and processing a deer because bovine Tb may be present in fluids from the internal body cavity.
* Make sure to clean knives that are used for field dressing thoroughly prior to using them to skin or process a deer, or use different knives for each step.
* Thoroughly wash your hands after field dressing, skinning, and processing deer.
* Cook all venison to an internal temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit.
I own cattle in the bovine Tb area, what should I do to reduce the risk of bovine Tb from wild deer?
Cattle operators in the Bovine Tb Management and Surveillance Area should limit contact between deer and cattle or cattle feed by:* Only feed cattle an amount that can be consumed in one day
* Fence areas where cattle feed is stored
* Store feed away from deer
* Close the end of large plastic bags used to store corn, haylage, or silage and also remove any feed from the ground around the ends of the bag
* Use hunting and additional landowner permits from the IDNR as a management tool to reduce deer density around your farm
If I own land in the bovine Tb area what can I do to help stop the spread of bovine Tb in Indiana?
If you own land in the Bovine Tb Management Zone (Picture 1) you should contact Joe Caudell (812) 334-1137, the Indiana State Deer Biologist, or the Indiana Bovine Tb Hotline at (844) 803-0002.

Additional Bovine Tb Resources:
Bovine Tuberculosis in Wild White-tailed Deer, FNR-551-W publication, Purdue Extension – Forestry & Natural Resources
Bovine Tb, Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR)
Bovine Tb, Indiana State Board of Animal Health (BOAH)
Bovine Tb Disease, USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
Bovine Tb, Michigan Department of Natural Resources
Bovine Tb, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
Bovine Tb factsheet, Center for Disease Control

Information provided by: Jarred Brooke, Extension Wildlife Specialist
Purdue Department of Forestry and Natural Resources


Posted on November 3rd, 2016 in Alert, How To | No Comments »

29048672594_f96f6b5b31Purdue Extension’s Don’t be a Zombie exhibit is traveling the country to illustrate the need to prepare for emergencies. It urges people to be ready for an emergency and have a plan. Don’t Wait. Communicate. Make an Emergency Communication Plan for you and your family because you just don’t know when disasters will impact your community. At the Indiana State Fair, almost 60,000 visitors got a chance to check out the Don’t be a Zombie – Be Prepared exhibit, complete with zombies, interactive displays, maze, and even a video game made to simulate a zombie apocalypse!

The display aims to have its viewers take away four main points:

  • Be informed – know what threats may affect your community
  • Make a family emergency plan – a plan for everyone and everything in case of disaster
  • Make a 72-hour emergency kit – enough supplies for everyone involved, along with first-aid, a crank radio, and a gallon of water per person each day
  • Practice and maintain these plans regularly – a plan is only good if it is up to date and known by everyone

The Don’t Be a Zombie exhibit is currently travelling to museums all over the country, its existence thanks to the collaboration between Purdue Extension and EDEN, a prime source for disaster preparedness information.

Resources:
Purdue Agriculture Traveling Exhibit Program
Disaster Recovery Project Management: Bringing Order from Chaos, The Education Store
First Steps to Flood Recovery, The Education Store
Keeping Food Safe During Emergencies, The Education Store
Emergency Action Planning for Livestock Operations, The Education Store

Purdue Traveling Exhibit Program


Posted on October 6th, 2016 in Alert, Plants | No Comments »

screen-shot-2016-10-06-at-2-29-37-pmGenetically Modified Organisms, or GMOs, is a topic that continues to be in the news and yet  many of us know relatively little about this topic. We want to know what we’re eating, and we want to know how this topic is impacting the environment. Knowing more equips us to make the best decisions for ourselves and generations to come. That’s why The Science of GMOs website was created, to help break down the information and address some of the most important questions and concerns that many have. You can always count on this site to address this complicated and evolving issue with neutral, scientifically sound information.

Submit a question by visiting The Science of GMOs website: https://ag.purdue.edu/GMOs.

Resources:
GMO Issues Facing Indiana Farmers in 2001, The Education Store
Grain Quality Issues Related to Genetically Modified Crops, The Education Store
Field Crops: Corn Insect Control Recommendations – 2015, The Education Store
Glyphosate, Weeds, and Crops: Biology and Management of Common Lambsquarters, The Education Store
Indiana Vegetable Planting Calendar, The Education Store

Purdue Agriculture


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