How does alcohol affect the body?
Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant.
- Alcohol is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine, passes into the bloodstream, and then travels throughout the body.
- The effects of alcohol on the body are directly related to the amount consumed.
- When consumed rapidly and in large amounts, alcohol can cause coma and death.
- Adverse effects of alcohol include impaired judgment, reduced reaction time, slurred speech, and difficulty walking.
- Alcohol can interact with a number of prescription and non-prescription medications in ways that can intensify the effect of the alcohol, of the medications themselves, or both.
- Alcohol use by pregnant women can cause serious damage to the developing fetus.
Excessive drinking has numerous acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) health effects.
- Acute health consequences of excessive drinking can include motor vehicle injuries and deaths; falls; mood changes and depression; physical and sexual violence; and alcohol poisoning.
- Chronic health consequences of excessive drinking can include permanent liver, heart, and brain damage; liver cancer; high blood pressure; and alcoholism.
|Drugs||Trade or Other Names||Possible Effects||Effects of Overdose||Withdrawal Syndrome|
|Heroin||Diamorphine, Horse, Smack, Black tar, Chiva, Negra (black tar)||Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea||Slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, possible death||Watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, loss of apetite, irritability, tremors, panic, cramps, nausea, chills and sweating|
|Morphine||MS-Contin, Roxanol, Oramorph SR, MSIR|
|Hydrocodone||Hydrocodone w/Acetominophen, Vicodin, Vicoprofen, Tussionex, Lortab|
|Oxycodone||Roxicet, Oxycodone w/Acetominophen, OxyContin, Endocet, Percocet, Percodan|
|Codeine||Acetominophen, Guaifenesin or Promethazine w/Codeine, Fiorinol, Fioricet, or Tylenol w/Codeine|
|Other Narcotics||Fentanyl, Demerol, Methadone, Darvon, Stadol, Talwin, Paregoric, Buprenex|
|GHB, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Sodium Oxybate, Xyrem®||Slurred speech, disorientation, drunken behavior without odor of alcohol, impaired memory of events, interacts with alcohol||Shallow respiration, clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, possible death||Anxiety, insomnia, tremors, delirium, convulsions, possible death|
|Benzodiazepines||Valium, Xanax, Halcion, Ativan, Restoril, Rohypnol (Roofies, R-2), Klonopin|
|Other Depressants||Ambien, Sonata, Meprobamate, Chloral Hydrate, Barbiturates, Methaqualone (Quaalude)|
|Cocaine||Coke, Flake, Snow, Crack, Coca, Blanca, Perico, Nieve, Soda||Increased alertness, excitation, euphoria, increased pulse rate & blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite||Agitation, increased body temperature, hallucinations, convulsions, possible death||Apathy, long periods of sleep, irritability, depression, disorientation|
|Crank, Ice, Cristal, Krystal Meth, Speed, Adderall, Dexedrine, Desoxyn|
|Methylphenidate||Ritalin, Concerta, Focalin, Metadate|
|MDMA and Analogs||(Molly, Ecstasy, XTC, Adam), MDA (Love Drug), MDEA (Eve), MBDB, DOM, DOB||Heightened senses, teeth grinding and dehydration||Increased body temperature, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac arrest||Muscle aches, drowsiness, depression, acne|
|LSD||Acid, Microdot, Sunshine, Boomers|
|Phencyclidine and Analogs||PCP, Angel Dust, Hog, Loveboat, Ketamine (Special K), PCE, PCPy, TCP||Illusions and hallucinations, altered perception of time and distance||(LSD) Longer, more intensed "trip" episodes||None|
|Other Hallucinogens||Psilocybe mushrooms, Mescaline, Peyote Cactus, Ayahausca, DMT, Fory, AMT||Unable to direct movement, feel pain, or remember||Drug seeking behavior *Not regulated|
|Marijuana||Pot, Grass, Sinsemilla, Blunts, Mota, Yerba, Grifa||Euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, increased appetite, disorientation||Fatigue, paranoia, possible psychosis||Occasional reports of insomnia, hyperactivity, decreased appetite|
|Hashish and Hashish Oil||Hash, Hash oil|
|Testosterone||Depo Testosterone, Sustanon, Sten, Cypt||Virilization, edema, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, acne, aggressive behavior||Unknown||Possible depression|
|Other Anabolic Steroids||Parabolan, Winstrol, Equipose, Anadrol, Dianabol, Primabolin-Depo, D-Ball|
|Amyl and Butyl Nitrates||Pearls, Poppers, Rush, Locker Room||Flushing, hypotension, headache
Impaired memory, slurred speech, drunken behavior, slow onset vitamin deficiency, organ damage
Vomiting, resiratory depression, loss of consciousness, possible death
Trembling, anxiety, insomnia, vityamin deficiency, confusion, hallucinations, convulsions
|Nitrous Oxide||Laughing gas, balloons, Whippets|
|Other Inhalants||Adhesives, spray paint, hair spray, dry cleaning fluid, spot remover, lighter fluid|
|Alcohol||Beer, wine, liquor|
U.S. Department of Justice
Drug Enforcement Administration