sealPurdue Lifestyles Briefs
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June 1998

Purdue students invent soybean-based ski wax

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. -- From the flat farm fields of Indiana comes the latest innovation in alpine skiing -- a soybean-based ski wax that's kinder to the ski slopes because it's petroleum free.

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Invented by two Purdue University sophomores from Indianapolis, "Soy Ski Wax" replaces the paraffin in ski wax with soybean and canola oils. The wax earned food process engineering students Faye Mulvaney and Ryan Howard $2,500 each as part of an innovative uses for soybeans competition sponsored by Purdue's agronomy department and the Indiana Soybean Board.

"We picked ski wax because of the tremendous growth in recreational skiing and snowboarding," Howard says. "We thought the people who like being outdoors also would like a product that doesn't harm the hill or end up in the water."

Coming up with the ski wax idea was the easy part. They knew from the soybean candles and soybean crayons developed in earlier contests that soybean oil could substitute for paraffin in wax. The difficulty was finding the exact formulation that would give the wax the necessary consistency, would work in cold temperatures and would reduce friction.

Once they had a promising mixture, they built a complicated wheel with small skis that would run the wax over a surface over and over again, testing friction and durability. Designing the test equipment was as demanding as making the wax, says Bernie Tao, associate professor in agricultural and biological engineering who mentored the students.

"There is no existing equipment or procedures to test the friction coefficients of skis," Tao says. "I think their equipment could end up being adopted by the ski industry." The testing wheel not only simulated a one-kilometer ski run at 35 miles per hour, it also was designed and wired to run in a refrigerator to simulate real-world conditions.

The ski wax is about 30 percent soybean oil, Mulvaney says. One package of wax would cost about 25 cents to produce.

CONTACTS: Mulvaney, (765) 746-1267; e-mail, fmulvaney@expert.cc.purdue.edu; Howard, (765) 463-6665; e-mail, ryhoward@ecn.purdue.edu; Tao, (765) 494-1183; e-mail, tao@ecn.purdue.edu

Student looks forward to very cool research opportunity

NOTE TO JOURNALISTS: A head-and-shoulders color photograph of Benjamin Hasse is available from the Purdue News Service.

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. -- A forestry major from Purdue University will spend the first semester of his junior year on a frozen continent completely devoid of trees.

The National Science Foundation and the Boy Scouts of America have chosen Benjamin Hasse of Kingsford, Mich., as their candidate to spend next fall helping Antarctic researchers.

"No obvious connection to my major -- no trees in the Antarctic! But I should learn more about how I'll function in a harsh environment," Hasse said. Harsh is an understatement for the Antarctic, where the world's record low temperature was recorded -- minus 128.6 degrees Fahrenheit -- and wind gusts can reach nearly 200 miles per hour.

Every three years the National Science Foundation permits the Boy Scouts to designate an Eagle Scout to join its scientists, helping to fulfill the U.S. government agency's goal of providing students with research opportunities outside the classroom.

From October through mid-January, Hasse will travel to different research stations on the frozen continent.

He becomes the ninth Eagle Scout chosen for the Antarctic Scout Program. Paul Siple was the first, traveling with Adm. Richard Byrd's 1928 expedition at the explorer's request. Siple eventually became a researcher and one of Byrd's right-hand men.

"We chose Ben from 112 candidates and four finalists -- all outstanding students with proven scouting backgrounds," said John Alline, national director of Boy Scout training. "His natural curiosity about science and strong communication skills made him a standout. We also were impressed with his continuing service at a Lafayette homeless shelter."

Hasse said, "I don't have any specific scientific skills, but I'm told an extra pair of hands will be useful. I would be happy to dig holes in the snow or pull sleds myself just for the opportunity and adventure." Hasse, who is majoring in Spanish along with forestry, has maintained a perfect 4.0 cumulative grade point average during his two years at Purdue, and he is a Purdue Beering Scholar.

The Steven C. Beering Scholarships and Fellowships were created in 1986 by Purdue President Beering to attract students of the highest caliber. The award covers all college expenses, including fees and tuition, room and board, books and spending money.

Undergraduate recipients who maintain the required standards hold the Beering Scholarship throughout their time at Purdue and may convert it to a fellowship to pursue master's and doctoral degrees at Purdue.

CONTACTS: Hasse, (906) 774-6820; e-mail: bjhasse@expert.cc.purdue.edu ; and John Alline, (972) 580-7835; e-mail: jalline@netbsa.org

Pig parts provide improved treatment for human knee injuries

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. -- Footballs long have been made of pigskin, but physicians are using another part of the pig to tackle a common but serious knee injury associated with sports.

Clinical trials are under way to test a new material derived from pigs' intestines that, when inserted into the human body, acts as a scaffold around which the body can regenerate damaged tissues, such as torn ligaments or tendons.

The new material -- which is, in essence, sausage casing -- was developed through a partnership between Purdue University and DePuy Orthopaedics Inc. of Warsaw, Ind.

Clinical trials of a device made from the material are under way at Aspen Valley Hospital in Aspen, Colo. The device is used to replace ruptured ligaments in "blowouts," or anterior cruciate ligament knee injuries, that involve damage to a ligament that runs from the femur, or thigh bone, to the tibia, the bone below the knee.

Such knee injuries are common in skiers and also occur in other sports. The injury occurs when an athlete suddenly decelerates or quickly stops, while trying to change direction at the same time, causing an overextension of the knee joint in either direction.

The new material offers hopes of a less invasive treatment and a more comfortable recovery for patients with such knee injuries, says Dr. Stephen F. Badylak, director of research for Purdue's Hillenbrand Biomedical Engineering Center and head physician for Purdue's athletes.

The material, called SIS for small-intestinal submucosa, is derived from the middle layers of the small intestine of pigs. Though the intestinal lining that gives rise to the raw material for SIS is very thin -- about as thick as a piece of paper -- the material is extremely strong, Badylak says.

Other treatments that have been used for this type of knee injury include replacing damaged ligaments with synthetic fibers. Badylak says synthetic implants tend to fail or weaken over time.

Previous animal studies with SIS were encouraging. "The SIS implants generally start out weaker than synthetic ligaments, but become heavier and stronger with use, just like natural tissue," Badylak says.

CONTACTS: Badylak, (765) 494-2995; e-mail, badylak@ecn.purdue.edu; or Tammy Allen, marketing communications coordinator, DePuy Orthopaedics, (219) 372-7355; e-mail, tammy_allen@ccgate.depuy.com

40-somethings start to invest in money management

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. -- In the world of personal finances, old dogs are eager to learn.

"Somewhere around age 45 it starts to hit people in the face that they need to manage their money," says Janet Bechman, Purdue University Extension specialist in consumer sciences. "In fact, in our review of financial management education, we found that the older the participant, the greater the likelihood that he or she would adopt the practices learned."

Bechman notes that many older people who learn skills such as budgeting, record keeping and investing regret not using the techniques in their youth. "Unfortunately, it's very difficult to motivate younger adults into practicing good financial management. Many just don't perceive the need," she says.

Bechman, an accredited financial counselor, has tried to reach the young. As part of a series of seminars in Purdue's School of Chemical Engineering, she preached the message of good money management to graduating seniors. "A few were interested and asked questions -- mostly they wanted to know about investing," she says.

Knowing that maturity and money management go hand-in-hand, Bechman and fellow Purdue researcher Sharon DeVaney, along with Elizabeth Gorham of Utah State University, studied participants in the Women's Financial Information Program (WFIP) sponsored by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP).

WFIP is a seven-week personal financial management course. Nationwide, various public service organizations offer it for free or for a nominal fee. Although targeted at women, men also may participate.

The study compared the pre- and post-assessments of more than 500 individuals who took the course in three states during a 30-month period. Those who participated ranged in age from 20 to 75, with almost half of them between the ages of 45 and 64.

In addition to age, other predictors of whether participants put into practice the things they learned were how confident they felt and whether they filled out the workbook that came with the course.

Bechman says persons learning personal financial management need a coach and cheerleaders. "Attitudes influence actions. Before they took the course, many persons were not at all sure how to get the information they needed to make wise financial decisions," she says. "For many, the program was not only an educational experience but also a support group from which they gained encouragement to take control of their finances."

To find out more about the WFIP, contact the AARP at (202) 434-6030. In Indiana, the WFIP is co-sponsored in many counties by the Purdue Cooperative Extension Service.

CONTACTS: Bechman, (765) 494-8309; DeVaney, (765) 494-8300.

Compiled by Beth Forbes, (765) 494-9723; e-mail, beth_forbes@purdue.edu
Purdue News Service: (765) 494-2096; e-mail, purduenews@purdue.edu

PHOTO CAPTION

Purdue sophomores Faye Mulvaney and Ryan Howard, both of Indianapolis, have invented a mountain-friendly ski wax for snowboarders who like to ride the half-pipes. The food process engineering students substituted biodegradable soybean oil for petroleum-derived paraffin in the wax. (Purdue News Service Photo by David Umberger)
Color photo, electronic transmission, and Web and ftp download available. Photo ID: Tao.skiwax
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