NCATE - Unit Assessment System Standards
The Purdue University teacher education programs have developed formative assessment protocols for Unit Assessment System (UAS) incorporating six UAS standards:
Unit Assessment System Standard 1:
Candidate Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions. Candidates preparing to work in schools as teachers or other professional school personnel know and demonstrate the content, pedagogical, and professional knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary to help all students learn. Assessments indicate that candidates meet professional, state, and institutional standards.
The unit assesses candidate performance through a comprehensive set of assessments that includes state licensing examinations where they exist. Knowledge and skills are assessed through measures such as examinations, portfolios, papers, presentations, and case studies. Assessments of knowledge dispositions and teaching performance occur during field experiences and clinical practice and include candidate analysis of P-12 student learning. The unit supplements information about candidate performance with information about graduates derived from follow-up studies, employer evaluations, and job placement rates. If a program does not meet the state cut-off score on licensing exams, the unit must provide other convincing evidence that the unit meets the standard. The speech-language pathology Master's program in the Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences is accredited by the American Speech-Language Hearing Association. As is described in the "ASHA Standards" of this document, the SLHS UAS assures that graduation candidates (known subsequently as "applicants" for ASHA Certification) fully demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions.
Unit Assessment System Standard 2:
Assessment System and Unit Evaluation. The unit has an assessment system that collects and analyses data on applicant qualifications, candidate and graduate performance, and unit operations to evaluate and improve the unit and its programs. This UAS document describes procedures that are used to comply with ASHA standards to assure applicant qualification, performance of graduates, and on-going evaluation of the program.
Unit Assessment System Standard 3:
Field Experiences and Clinical Practice The unit and its school partners design, implement, and evaluate field experiences and clinical practice so that teacher candidates and other school personnel develop and demonstrate the knowledge, skills and dispositions necessary to help all students learn. Students in the MS-SLP program are required to complete courses that prepare them for work in public schools (SLHS 544) and are placed in a field experience (Education Externship) for a full-time 8-week period of time. During the Education Externship the graduate student clinicians ("Student Teachers") are evaluated by the Cooperating Teacher (Public School Speech Language Pathologist) and by the University Supervisor. Evaluation forms and four years of aggregated data are found in Appendices 9, 10, and 11.
Unit Assessment System Standard 4:
Diversity The unit designs, implements, and evaluates curriculum and experiences for candidates to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary to help all students learn. These experiences include working with diverse higher education and school faculty, diverse candidates, and diverse students in P-12 schools. Planning to assure diversity throughout the academic program and field experiences is documented in the Annual Report to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association which is maintained in the central office of the Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences.
Unit Assessment System Standard 5:
Faculty Qualifications, Performance, and Development Faculty are qualified and model best professional practices in scholarship, service, and teaching, including the assessment of their own effectiveness as related candidate performance; they also collaborate with colleagues in the disciplines and schools. The unit systematically evaluates faculty performance and facilitates professional development. Faculty refers to both professional education faculty who are employed by higher education institutions and school faculty who supervise clinical practices. Performance evaluations are conducted annually for faculty and staff in the Department of SLHS. Supervisors of clinical practica (field experiences on and off-campus) are assessed through anonymous evaluations. Curriculum vitae of SLHS faculty are maintained in the Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences; electronic files are also available through the SLHS department website.
Unit Assessment Standard 6:
Unit Governance and Resources The unit has the leadership, authority, budget, personnel, facilities, and resources including information technology resources, for the preparation of candidates to meet professional, state and institutional standards. The ASHA annual reports and documentation of unit governance and resources are available in the central office of the Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences.
The Unit Assessment System of the Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences addresses criteria and standards for program evaluation that were developed by the National Council of Teacher Accreditation and by the American Association of Speech Language Hearing Association. An overview of the tools and procedures for assuring that formative and summative assessment standards are met is contained in Appendix 1: "Algorithm and Documentation forms Purdue University's Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences Formative Assessment System for the ASHA 2005 (SLP) and 2007 (Audiology) Standards." This document is used as an organizational overview and timeline to be used by faculty and students.
Compliance with Unit Assessment System Criteria
Components that address Unit Assessment System Criterion 1
During the 2000-2001 academic year, faculty and staff in the Department of SLHS reviewed the curriculum to identify whether newly revised ASHA standards would be met with the existing program. A Mapping Guide was developed as a tool for identifying where each of the ASHA standards was targeted within the curriculum. As a result of the review process, it was determined that all standards were addressed in the curriculum of the MS-SLP program. No curriculum modifications or additions were recommended. During the 2002-2003 academic year, the American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA), Council for Academic Accreditation (CAA) provided all graduate programs with the "Knowledge and Skills Assessment" (KASA) form as a tool to be used for documentation of where all "knowledge outcomes," and "skills outcomes" are targeted by a program that is certified under the revised ASHA standards. Upon receiving the KASA from the ASHA Council for Academic Accreditation (CAA), this program's Unit Assessment System began use of the KASA in place of the original Mapping Guide (contained in the 2002 version of the SLHS UAS). ASHA Standards for Speech-Language Pathology are to be implemented in Fall of 2003 and are described in the text of this document. ASHA Standards for Audiology are to be implemented in 2005. The SLP KASA is included in Appendix 2-A of this document and the Audiology KASA is Appendix 2-B.
External Review of Mapping Guide Return to Top
The Department of SLHS Advisory Board is comprised of individuals who have expertise and/or interest in the clinical programs of speech-language pathology and audiology.
In the October meeting of 2001, members were asked to review the MS-SLP Mapping Guide and provide feedback. Results of the review are maintained in the main office of the Dept. of SLHS.
An Alumni Survey is used to obtain information about 1) satisfaction of the graduates, 2) recommendations for program improvement, 3) current employment, and 4) areas of continuing education that graduates seek. This survey is mailed to alumni of the SLHS programs at three and six years after graduation.
A "Teacher Education Program" Exit Survey has been developed by the Office of Professional Preparation and Licensure (see Appendix 3). In the continuing program self-evaluation and further development process of the SLHS Unit Assessment System the Exit Survey may be revised to more closely fit with skills and competencies of speech-language pathologist graduates. In the past there has been an extremely low return rate of survey responses. To address this concern the Dept. of SLHS is attempting to identify procedures that may increase the number of responses.
Evaluation of students/program is accomplished through the following mechanisms:
1. Evaluation of program by students in program (survey tools in development).
2. Evaluation of program by Extern supervisors (Forms contained in "Education Externship Manual" and "Healthcare Externship Manual".) The manuals for the Education Externship ("Student Teaching") and the Healthcare externship will be made available to site visitors.
3. Evaluation of program by alumni
4. Evaluation of program by supervisors of the Clinical Fellowship experience, which is the first nine months of full-time employment after graduation with a MS-SLP degree.
Components that address Unit Assessment System Criterion 2
The Indiana Professional Standards Board recognizes the standards of professions that are NCATE affiliated. Therefore, since the American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA) is an NCATE affiliated organization, the ASHA standards for certification in speech language pathology are the foundation for the Department of Audiology & Speech Sciences' speech-language pathology program and for this program's Unit Assessment System.
Standards and Implementation for the Certificate of
Clinical Competence in Speech-Language Pathology Return to Top
Previous certification standards emphasized process measures of academic and clinical knowledge. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Associations Council on Professional Standards in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology developed new standards in response to changes in the scope of practice, to protect consumers and to promote quality services. In January 2001 the Council For Clinical Certification (CFCC) was established and assumed both the standard-setting and implementation functions. Previous certification standards emphasized process measures of academic and clinical knowledge, the 2005 standards combine process and outcome measures of academic and clinical knowledge and skills. Process standards specify the experiences, such as course work or practicum hours; outcome standards require demonstration of specific knowledge and skills.
The 2005 standards utilize a combination of formative and summative assessments for the purpose of improving and measuring student learning. The American Speech Language Hearing Association provides implementation guidelines in the "Membership and Certification Handbook," and at the organization's web site at www.asha.org. The following section of the SLHS Unit Assessment System lists each ASHA Standard for Certification in Speech Language Pathology and a condensed version of the implementation language that has been provided by ASHA.
STANDARD I: DEGREE
Effective January 1, 2005, the applicant for certification must have a master's or doctoral or other recognized post-baccalaureate degree. A minimum of 75 semester credit hours must be completed in a course of study addressing the knowledge and skills pertinent to the field of speech-language pathology. Verification of the graduate degree is required of the applicant before the Certificate of Clinical Competence is awarded. Degree verification is accomplished by submitting (a) an application signed by the director of the graduate program indicating the degree date, and (b) an official transcript showing that the degree has been awarded. Individuals educated in foreign countries must submit official transcripts and evaluations of their degrees and courses to verify equivalency. Effective January 1, 2005, the applicant for certification must have a master's or doctoral or other recognized post-baccalaureate degree. All graduate course work and graduate clinical practicum required in the professional area for which the Certificate is sought, must have been initiated and completed at an institution whose program was accredited by the Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology (CAA) of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association in the area for which the Certificate is sought. A minimum of 75 semester credit hours must be completed in a course of study addressing the knowledge and skills pertinent to the field of speech-language pathology. Of the 75 semester credit hours, at least 36 must be earned at the post-baccalaureate level.
All graduate course work and graduate clinical practicum required in the professional area for which the Certificate is sought must have been initiated and completed at an institution whose program was accredited by the Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology (CAA) of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association in the area for which the Certificate is sought.
STANDARD II: INSTITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION
The graduate degree must be granted by a regionally accredited institution of higher education. The institution of higher education must be accredited by one of the following: Commission on Higher Education, Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools; Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, New England Association of Schools and Colleges; Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, North Central Association of Colleges and Schools; Commission on Colleges, Northwest Association Schools and Colleges; Commission on Colleges, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools; and Accrediting Commission for Senior Colleges and Universities, Western Association of Schools and Colleges.
STANDARD III: PROGRAM OF STUDY-KNOWLEDGE OUTCOMES
The applicant for certification must complete a program of study (a minimum of 75 credit hours overall, including at least 36 at the graduate level) that includes academic course work sufficient in depth and breadth to achieve the specified knowledge outcomes. The program of study must address the knowledge and skills pertinent to the field of speech-language pathology. The applicant must demonstrate, through completion of the Knowledge and Skills Assessment (KASA) form and supporting documentation, that the requirements in this standard have been met. The applicant must maintain documentation of course work at both undergraduate and graduate levels. The minimum 75 semester credit hours may include credit earned for course work, clinical practicum, research, and/or thesis/dissertation.
Standard III-A: The applicant must demonstrate knowledge of the principles of biological sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, and the social/behavioral sciences.
The applicant must have transcript credit (which could include course work, advanced placement, CLEP, or examination of equivalency) for each of the following areas: biological sciences, physical sciences, social/behavioral sciences, and mathematics. Appropriate course work may include human anatomy and physiology, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, genetics, physics, inorganic and organic chemistry, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and non-remedial mathematics. In addition to transcript credit, applicants may be required by their graduate program to provide further evidence of meeting this requirement.
Standard III-B: The applicant must demonstrate knowledge of basic human communication and swallowing processes, including their biological, neurological, acoustic, psychological, developmental, and linguistic and cultural bases.
This standard emphasizes the basic human communication processes. The applicant must demonstrate, through completion of the KASA form with supporting documentation, the ability to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information pertaining to normal and abnormal human development across the life span, including basic communication processes and the impact of cultural and linguistic diversity on communication. Similar knowledge must also be obtained in swallowing processes and new emerging areas of practice. Program documentation may include transcript credit and information obtained by the applicant through clinical experiences, independent studies, and research projects.
Standard III-C: The applicant must demonstrate knowledge of the nature of speech, language, hearing, and communication disorders and differences and swallowing disorders, including the etiologies, characteristics, anatomical/ physiological, acoustic, psychological, developmental, and linguistic and cultural correlates. Specific knowledge must be demonstrated in the following areas:
· voice and resonance, including respiration and phonation
· receptive and expressive language (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics) in speaking, listening, reading, writing, and manual modalities
· hearing, including the impact on speech and language
· swallowing (oral, pharyngeal, esophageal, and related functions, including oral function for feeding; orofacial myofunction)
· cognitive aspects of communication (attention, memory, sequencing, problem-solving, executive functioning)
· social aspects of communication (including challenging behavior, ineffective social skills, lack of communication opportunities)
· communication modalities (including oral, manual, augmentative, and alternative communication techniques and assistive technologies)
The applicant must demonstrate, through completion of the KASA form with supporting documentation, the ability to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information delineated in this standard. Program documentation may include transcript credit and information obtained by the applicant through clinical experiences, independent studies, and research projects. It is expected that course work addressing the professional knowledge specified in Standard III-C will occur primarily at the graduate level. The knowledge gained from the graduate program should include an effective balance between traditional parameters of communication (articulation/phonology, voice, fluency, language, and hearing) and additional recognized and emerging areas of practice (e.g., swallowing, upper aerodigestive functions).
Standard III-D: The applicant must possess knowledge of the principles and methods of prevention, assessment, and intervention for people with communication and swallowing disorders, including consideration of anatomical/physiological, psychological, developmental, and linguistic and cultural correlates of the disorders.
The applicant must demonstrate, through completion of the KASA form with supporting documentation, the ability to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information about prevention, assessment, and intervention over the range of differences and disorders specified in Standard III C above. Program documentation may include transcript credit and information obtained by the applicant through clinical experiences, independent studies, and research projects.
Standard III-E: The applicant must demonstrate knowledge of standards of ethical conduct. Return to Top
The applicant must demonstrate, through completion of the KASA form with supporting documentation, knowledge of, appreciation for, and ability to interpret the ASHA Code of Ethics. Program documentation may reflect coursework, workshop participation, instructional module, clinical experiences, and independent projects.
Standard III-F: The applicant must demonstrate knowledge of processes used in research and the integration of research principles into evidence-based clinical practice.
The applicant must demonstrate, through completion of the KASA form with supporting documentation, comprehension of the principles of basic and applied research and research design. In addition the applicant should know how to access sources of research information and have experience relating research to clinical practice. Program documentation could include information obtained through class projects, clinical experiences, independent studies, and research projects.
Standard III-G: The applicant must demonstrate knowledge of contemporary professional issues.
The applicant must demonstrate, through completion of the KASA form with supporting documentation, knowledge of professional issues that affect speech-language pathology as a profession. Issues typically include professional practice, academic program accreditation standards, ASHA practice policies and guidelines, and reimbursement procedures. Documentation could include information obtained through clinical experiences, workshops, and independent studies.
Standard III-H: The applicant must demonstrate knowledge about certification, specialty recognition, licensure, and other relevant professional credentials.
The applicant must demonstrate, through completion of the KASA form and supporting documentation, knowledge of state and federal regulations and policies related to the practice of speech-language pathology and credentials for professional practice. Documentation could include course modules and instructional workshops.
Standard IV: Program of Study-Skills Outcomes
Standard IV-A: The applicant must complete a curriculum of academic and clinical education that follows an appropriate sequence of learning sufficient to achieve the skills outcomes in Standard IV-G.
The applicant's program of study should follow a systematic knowledge- and skill-building sequence in which basic course work and practicum precede, insofar as possible, more advanced course work and practicum.
Standard IV-B: The applicant must possess skill in oral and written or other forms of communication sufficient for entry into professional practice.
The applicant must demonstrate communication skills sufficient to achieve effective clinical and professional interaction with clients/patients and relevant others. For oral communication, the applicant must demonstrate speech and language skills in English, which, at a minimum, are consistent with ASHA's most current position statement on students and professionals who speak English with accents and nonstandard dialects.
For written communication the applicant must be able to write and comprehend technical reports, diagnostic and treatment reports, treatment plans, and professional correspondence.
Standard IV-C: The applicant for certification in speech-language pathology must complete a minimum of 400 clock hours of supervised clinical experience in the practice of speech-language pathology. Twenty-five hours must be spent in clinical observation, and 375 hours must be spent in direct client/patient contact.
Observation hours generally precede direct contact with clients/patients. However, completion of all 25 observation hours is not a prerequisite to begin direct client/patient contact. The observation and direct client/patient contact hours must be within the scope of practice of speech-language pathology. Observation experiences must be under the direction of a qualified clinical supervisor who holds current ASHA certification in the appropriate practice area. Such direction may occur simultaneously with the student's observation or may be through review and approval of written reports or summaries submitted by the student. Students may use videotapes of the provision of client services for observation purposes. The applicant must maintain documentation of time spent in supervised observation, verified by the program in accordance with Standards III and IV.
Applicants should be assigned practicum only after they have acquired a sufficient knowledge base to qualify for such experience. Only direct contact with the client or the client's family in assessment, management, and/or counseling can be counted toward practicum. Although several students may observe a clinical session at one time, clinical practicum hours should be assigned only to the student who provides direct services to the client or client's family. Typically, only one student should be working with a given client. In rare circumstances, it is possible for several students working as a team to receive credit for the same session depending on the specific responsibilities each student is assigned. For example, in a diagnostic session, if one student evaluates the client and another interviews the parents, both students may receive credit for the time each spent in providing the service. However, if one student works with the client for 30 minutes and another student works with the client for the next 45 minutes, each student receives credit for the time he/she actually provided services- that is, 30 and 45 minutes, not 75 minutes. The applicant must maintain documentation of time spent in supervised practicum, verified by the program in accordance with Standards III and IV.
Standard IV-D: At least 325 of the 400 clock hours must be completed while the applicant is engaged in graduate study in a program accredited in speech-language pathology by the Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology.
A minimum of 325 hours of clinical practicum must be completed at the graduate level. The remaining required hours may have been completed at the undergraduate level, at the discretion of the graduate program.
Standard IV-E: Supervision must be provided by individuals who hold the Certificate of Clinical Competence in the appropriate area of practice. The amount of supervision must be appropriate to the student's level of knowledge, experience, and competence. Supervision must be sufficient to ensure the welfare of the client/patient.
Direct supervision must be in real time and must never be less than 25% of the student's total contact with each client/patient and must take place periodically throughout the practicum. These are minimum requirements that should be adjusted upward if the student's level of knowledge, experience, and competence warrants. A
supervisor must be available to consult as appropriate for the client's/patient's disorder with a student providing clinical services as part of the student's clinical education. Supervision of clinical practicum must include direct observation, guidance, and feedback to permit the student to monitor, evaluate, and improve performance and to develop clinical competence.
All observation and clinical practicum hours used to meet Standard IV-C must be supervised by individuals who hold a current CCC in the professional area in which the observation and practicum hours are being obtained Only the supervisor who actually observes the student in a clinical session is permitted to verify the credit given to the student for the clinical practicum hours.
Standard IV-F: Supervised practicum must include experience with client/patient populations across the life span and from culturally/linguistically diverse backgrounds. Practicum must include experience with client/patient populations with various types and severities of communication and/or related disorders, differences, and disabilities.
The applicant must demonstrate through the KASA form and other documentation direct client/patient clinical experiences in both diagnosis and treatment with both children and adults from the range of disorders and differences named in Standard III-C.
Standard IV-G: The applicant for certification must complete a program of study that includes supervised clinical experiences sufficient in breadth and depth to achieve the following skills outcomes:
a. conduct screening and prevention procedures (including prevention activities)
b. collect case history information and integrate information from clients/patients, family, caregivers, teachers, relevant others, and other professionals
c. select and administer appropriate evaluation procedures, such as behavioral observations, nonstandardized and standardized tests, and instrumental procedures
d. adapt evaluation procedures to meet client/patient needs
e. interpret, integrate, and synthesize all information to develop diagnoses and make appropriate recommendations for intervention
f. complete administrative and reporting functions necessary to support evaluation
g. refer clients/patients for appropriate services
a. develop setting -appropriate intervention plans with measurable and achievable goals that meet clients'/patients' needs. Collaborate with clients/patients and relevant others in the planning process
b. implement intervention plans (Involve clients/patients and relevant others in the intervention process)
c. select or develop and use appropriate materials and instrumentation for prevention and intervention
d. measure and evaluate clients'/patients' performance and progress
e. modify intervention plans, strategies, materials, or instrumentation as appropriate to meet the needs of clients/patients
f. complete administrative and reporting functions necessary to support intervention
g. identify and refer clients/patients for services as appropriate
3. Interaction and Personal Qualities:
a. communicate effectively, recognizing the needs, values, preferred mode of communication, and cultural/linguistic background of the client/patient, family, caregivers, and relevant others
b. collaborate with other professionals in case management
c. provide counseling regarding communication and swallowing disorders to clients /patients, family, caregivers, and relevant others
d. adhere to the ASHA Code of Ethics and behave professionally
The applicant must demonstrate, through completion of the KASA form with supporting documentation, the acquisition of the skills referred to in this Standard. It is expected that these skills will be demonstrated for each of the nine major areas outlined in Standard III-C. This documentation must be maintained and verified by the program director or official designee. In addition to direct client/patient contact, clinical skills may be developed and demonstrated through successful performance on academic course work and examinations, application of information obtained through clinical experiences, and completion of independent projects. In instances where applicants have not had direct patient contact with disorder and difference categories, appropriate alternative methods for skills development must be demonstrated. However, only direct clinical contact may be counted toward the required minimum of 400 clock hours of supervised clinical experience.
STANDARD V: ASSESSMENT Return to Top
The applicant for certification must demonstrate successful achievement of the knowledge and skills delineated in Standard III and Standard IV by means of both formative and summative assessment.
Standard V-A: Formative Assessment
The applicant must meet the education program's requirements for demonstrating satisfactory performance through ongoing formative assessment of knowledge and skills.
Formative assessment yields critical information for monitoring an individual's acquisition of knowledge and skills. Therefore, to ensure that the applicant pursues the outcomes stipulated in Standard III and Standard IV in a systematic manner, academic and clinical educators must have assessed developing knowledge and skills throughout the applicant's program of graduate study. Applicants may also be part of the process through self-assessment. Applicants and program faculties should use the ongoing assessment to help the applicant achieve requisite knowledge and skills. Thus, assessments should be followed by implementation of strategies for acquisition of knowledge and skills. The applicant must adhere to the academic program's formative assessment process and must maintain records verifying ongoing formative assessment. The applicant shall make these records available to the Council For Clinical Certification upon its request and may take a variety of other forms, such as checklists of skills, records of progress in clinical skill development, portfolios, statements of achievement of academic and practicum course objectives, among others.
Standard V-B: Summative Assessment
The applicant must pass the national examination adopted by ASHA for purposes of certification in speech-language pathology.
Summative assessment is a comprehensive examination of learning outcomes at the culmination of professional preparation. Evidence of a passing score on the ASHA-approved national examination in speech-language pathology must be submitted by the testing agency administering the examination.
The remaining standards apply after completion of the Master's degree; monitoring of these standards is not covered by the program's Unit Assessment System.
STANDARD VI: SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY CLINICAL FELLOWSHIP
After completion of academic course work and practicum (Standard VI), the applicant then must successfully complete a Speech-Language Pathology Clinical Fellowship (SLPCF).
STANDARD VII: MAINTENANCE OF CERTIFICATION Return to Top
Demonstration of continued professional development is mandated for maintenance of the Certificate of Clinical Competence in Speech-Language Pathology. This standard will take effect on January 1, 2005. The renewal period will be 3 years. This standard will apply to all certificate holders, regardless of the date of initial certification.
All aspects of the Department of Audiology & Speech Sciences' MS-SLP program meet the ASHA standards for certification in speech-language pathology. The following excerpts describe the curriculum for the MS-SLP. Sample plans of study and further information about the curriculum is available in the Graduate Handbook.