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Psychological Sciences Faculty

Robert ProctorRobert Proctor

Distinguished Professor, Cognitive

Mailing Address:
Department of Psychological Sciences
Purdue University
703 Third Street
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2081 USA

Campus Address:
Psychological Sciences, Room 3150

E-mail: proctor@psych.purdue.edu
Telephone: (765) 494-0784



Degree: Ph.D. Texas at Arlington, 1975

Research Interests:

My research focuses on selection and control of action.  I also conduct research in human factors, human-computer interaction, and the psychology of science. 

Recent Publications:

Bae, G. Y., Cho, Y. S., & Proctor, R. W.  (2009). Transfer of orthogonal stimulus response mappings to an orthogonal Simon task.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 746-765. 

Bae, G. Y., Choi, J. M., Cho, Y. S., & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Transfer of magnitude and spatial mappings to the SNARC Effect for parity judgments.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 1506-1521.

Capaldi, E. J. & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Two radically different worldviews of psychological science: Implications for the psychology of science. Journal of Psychology of Science and Technology, 2, 44-58.

Choi, J. M., Cho, Y. S., & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Impaired color word processing at an unattended location: Evidence from a Stroop task combined with inhibition of return.  Memory & Cognition, 37, 935-944.

Liao, H., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2009). Chinese and U.S. online consumers’ preferences for content of E-commerce Web sites: A survey. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 10, 19-42.

Liao, H., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2009). Content preparation for E-commerce involving Chinese and US online consumers.  International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 25, 729-761.

Miles, J. D., & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Non-Intentional but not automatic: Reduction of word- and arrow-based compatibility effects by sound distractors in the same categorical domain. Experimental Brain Research, 199, 101-106.

Miles, J. D. & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Reducing and restoring stimulus-response compatibility effects by decreasing the discriminability of location words. Acta Psychologica, 130, 95-102.

Miles, J. D., Yamaguchi, M., & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Dilution of the Simon effect: Categorical similarity between distractors and diluters. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 71, 1598-1606.

Müsseler, J., Aschersleben, G., Arning, K., & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Reversed effects of spatial compatibility in natural scenes.  American Journal of Psychology, 122, 25-36.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2009). Determinants of the benefit for consistent stimulus-response mappings in dual-task performance of four-choice tasks.  Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71, 734-756.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2009). Determinants of the benefit for consistent stimulus-response mappings in dual-task performance of three-choice tasks.  Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 71, 1771-1781.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2009). Task-defined associations are mode specific for selection of relevant dimension but mode independent for selection of mapping. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 371-392.

Proctor, R. W., Yamaguchi, M., Zhang, Y., & Vu, K.-P. L. (2009). Influence of visual stimulus mode on transfer of acquired spatial associations.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 434-445. 

Read, L. E. & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Influence of mapping complexity on negative priming for incompatible spatial mappings.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 1118-1123.

Savoy, A., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2009). Information retention from PowerPoint™ and traditional lectures.  Computers and Education, 52, 858-867.

Wang, D. D., Proctor, R. W., & Pick, D. F. (2009). Allocation of effort as a function of payoffs for individual tasks in a multitasking environment. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 705-716.

Yamaguchi, M. & Proctor, R. W.  (2009). Transfer of learning in choice reactions: Contributions of specific and general components of manual responses.  Acta Psychologica, 130, 1–10.

Zeng, L., Salvendy, G., & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Fostering creativity in service development: Facilitating service innovation by the creative cognition approach. Service Science, 1, 142-153.

Proctor, R. W. & Read, L. E. (Eds.) (2009). Attention (Vols. 1-4). Sage Library in Cognitive and Experimental Psychology.  London: Sage Publications.

Proctor, R. W. & Read, L. E. (2009). Editors’ introduction.  In R. W. Proctor & L. E. Read (Eds.), Attention (Vol. 1, pp. xxi-xl). Sage Library in Cognitive and Experimental Psychology.  London: Sage Publications.

Proctor, R. W., Vu, K.-P. L., & Schultz, E.  (2009). Human factors in information security and privacy. In J. N. D. Gupta & S. K. Sharma (Eds.), Handbook of research on information security and assurance (pp. 402-414).  Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.

Yamaguchi, M. & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Modeling response times for digital humans.  In V. Duffy (Ed.), Handbook of digital human modeling: Research for applied ergonomics and human factors engineering (pp. 15-1 – 15-11).  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Miles, J. D., Proctor, R. W., & Capaldi, E. J. (2009). Associative learning without reason or belief. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 217-218.

Jeong, K.-A., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2009).  A survey of smart home interface preferences for U.S. and Korean users. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting (pp. 541-545). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Zeng, L., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2009). Integrating creativity in IT product and service development into ergonomic design practices.” In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting (pp. 1507-1511). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Dutt, V., Yamaguchi, M., Gonzalez, C., & Proctor, R. W.  (2009). An instance based learning model of stimulus-response compatibility effects in mixed location-relevant and location-irrelevant tasks. In A. Howes, D. Peebles, & R. Cooper (Eds.), 9th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling – ICCM2009. Manchester, UK.

Guo, Y., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2009).  What do users want to see? A content preparation study for consumer electronics. In J. A. Jacko (Ed.), Human-computer interaction, Part I, HCII 2009, LNCS 5610 (pp.413–420). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Hiremath, V., Proctor, R. W., Fanjoy, R. O., Feyen, R. G., & Young, J. P. (2009). Comparison of pilot recovery and response times in two types of cockpits. In M. J. Smith & G. Salvendy (Eds.), Human interface, Part II, HCII 2009, LNCS 5618 (pp. 766–775). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Jeong, K.-A., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2009).  Grouping preferences of Americans and Koreans in interfaces for smart home control. In M. Kurosu (Ed.), Human centered design, HCII 2009, LNCS 5619 (pp. 436-445). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Kim, K., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2009).  Menu design in cell phones: Use of 3D menus. In J. A. Jacko (Ed.), Human-computer interaction, Part III, HCII 2009, LNCS 5612 (pp. 48–57).  Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Kukula, E. P. & Proctor, R. W. (2009). Human-biometric sensor interaction: Impact of training on biometric system and user performance. In M. J. Smith & G. Salvendy (Eds.), Human interface, Part II, HCII 2009, LNCS 5618 (pp. 168–177). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Zeng, L., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2009). Integration of creativity into website design. In J. A. Jacko (Ed.), Human-computer interaction, Part I, HCII 2009, LNCS 5610 (pp. 769–776).  Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Yamaguchi, M. & Proctor, R. W. (2009).  A compatibility analysis of attitude display formats.  Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.  Dayton, OH. (CD ROM)

Eder, A. B., Rothermund, K., & Proctor, R. W. (2010). The prepared emotional reflex: Intentional preparation of automatic approach and avoidance tendencies as a means to regulate emotional responding. Emotion, 10, 593-598.

Guo, Y., Zhu, Y., Salvendy, G., & Proctor, R. W. (2010). Content information needed for effective use of information appliances in China. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1685-1693.

Jeong, K.-A., Salvendy, G., & Proctor, R. W. (2010). Smart home design and operation preferences of Americans and Koreans. Ergonomics, 53, 636-660.

Miles, J. D. & Proctor, R. W. (2010). Attention is required for the acquisition but not expression of new spatial associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36, 1554–1560.

Miles, J. D., Witt, J. K., & Proctor, R. W. (2010). Action plans produce separate Simon effects for picking up objects and transporting them. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 74, 468–475.

Proctor, R. W. & Shao, C. (2010). Does the contribution of stimulus-hand correspondence to the auditory Simon effect increase with practice? Experimental Brain Research, 204, 131-137.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2010). Cumulative knowledge and progress in human factors. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 623-651.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2010). Stimulus-response compatibility for mixed mappings and tasks with unique responses. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 320–340.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2010). Universal and culture-specific effects of display-control compatibility. American Journal of Psychology, 123, 425–435.

Proctor, R. W. & Zhang, Y. (2010). “Mother Nature doesn't have a bullet with your name on it”: Coding with reference to one’s name or object location? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 336–343.

Shin, Y. K., Proctor, R. W., & Capaldi, E. J. (2010). A review of contemporary ideomotor theory. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 943–974.

Vu, K.-P. L., Chambers, V., Creekmur, B., Cho, D. & Proctor, R. W. (2010). Influence of the Privacy Bird® user agent on user trust of different Web sites. Computers in Industry, 61, 311-317.

Vu, K.-P. L., Ngo, T. K., Minakata, K., & Proctor, R. W. (2010). Shared spatial representations for physical locations and location words in bilinguals’ primary language. Memory & Cognition, 38, 713-722.

Yamaguchi, M. & Proctor, R. W. (2010). Compatibility of motion information in two aircraft attitude displays for a tracking task. American Journal of Psychology, 123, 81-92.

Zeng, L., Salvendy, G., & Proctor, R. W. (2010). Creativity in ergonomic design: A supplemental value-adding source for product and service development. Human Factors, 52, 503-525.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2010). Action selection. In I. B. Weiner & E. Craighead (Eds.), The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (Vo. 1, pp. 20-22). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Proctor, R. W., & Vu, K.-P. L. (2010). Human factors and ergonomics. In H. Bidgoli (Ed.), Handbook of technology management (Vol. 1: Core concepts, financial tools and techniques, operations and innovation management; pp. 1057-1067). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2010). Human sensation and perception. In J. G. Voeller (Ed.), Wiley handbook of science and technology for homeland security (article 293, pp. 1-17). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Proctor, R. W. & Yamaguchi, M. (2010). Factors affecting speed and accuracy of response selection in operational environments. In D. H. Andrews, R. P. Herz, & M. B. Wolf (Eds.), Human factors issues in combat identification (pp. 31-47). Farnham, UK: Ashgate.

Cho, D. (T.), & Proctor, R. W. (2011). Correspondence effects for objects with opposing left and right protrusions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37, 737-749.

Jeong, K.-A. & Proctor, R. W. (2011). Establishing inhabitant-centered interaction technology for future homes. Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications, 19, 9-14.

Kim, K., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2011). Comparison of 3D and 2D menus for cell phones. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 2056-2066.

Koch, I., Schuch, S., Vu, K.-P. L., & Proctor, R. W. (2011). Response-repetition effects in task switching—Dissociating effects of anatomical and spatial response discriminability. Acta Psychologica, 136, 399–404.

Miles, J. D. & Proctor, R. W. (2011). Colour correspondence effects between controlled objects and targets. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 2044-2064.

Proctor, R. W. (2011). Playing the Simon game: Use of the Simon task for investigating human information processing. Acta Psychologica, 136, 182–188.

Proctor, R. W., Miles, J. D., & Baroni, G. (2011). Reaction-time distribution analysis of spatial correspondence effects. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 242-266.

Proctor, R. W., Nof, S. Y., Yih, Y., Balasubramanian, P., Busemeyer, J. R., Carayon, P., Chiu, C.-y., Farahmand, F., Gonzalez, C., Gore, J., Landry, S. J., Lehto, M., Rau, P.-L., Rouse, W., Tay, T., Vu, K.-P. L., & Woo, S. E., & Salvendy, G. (2011). Understanding and improving cross-cultural decision making in design and use of digital media: A research agenda.  International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 27, 151-190.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2011). Complementary contributions of basic and applied research in human factors and ergonomics. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 12, 427-434.

Rosli, M. R., Tan, H. Z., Proctor, R. W., & Gray, R. (2011). Attentional gradient for crossmodal proximal-distal tactile cueing of visual spatial attention. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 8 (4), Article 23, 12 pages.

Vu, K.-P. L. & Proctor, R. W. (2011). Influence of bias on visuospatial and verbal compatibility effects in mixed mapping environments. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 2594-2605.

Yamaguchi, M. & Proctor, R. W. (2011). Automaticity without extensive training: The role of memory retrieval in implementation of task-defined rules. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 347-354.

Yamaguchi, M., & Proctor, R. W.  (2011). The Simon task with multi-component responses: Two loci of response-effect compatibility. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 75, 214-226.

Zeng, L., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2011). Can traditional divergent thinking tests be trusted to measure and predict real-world creativity? Creativity Research Journal, 23, 24-37.

Zeng, L., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2011). Fostering ceativity in product and service development: Validation in the domain of information technology. Human Factors, 53, 245-270.

Vu, K.-P. L. & Proctor, R. W. (Eds.) (2011). Handbook of human factors in Web design (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Vu, K.-P. L, Zhu, W., & Proctor, R. W. (2011). Evaluating Web usability. In K.-P. L. Vu & R. W. Proctor (Eds.), Handbook of human factors in Web design (pp. 439-460).  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Proctor, R. W. & Capaldi, E. J. (Eds.). (2012). Psychology of science: Implicit and explicit processes. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Proctor, R. W., Nof, S., & Yih, Y. (Eds.). (2012). Cultural factors in systems design: Decision making and action. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Baroni, G., Pellicano, A., Lugli, L., Nicoletti, R., & Proctor, R. W. (2012). Influence of temporal overlap on the time course of the Simon effect. Experimental Psychology, 59, 88-98.

Chen, J. & Proctor, R. W. (2012). Influence of category identity on letter matching: Conceptual penetration of visual processing or response competition? Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 74, 716-729.

Cho, Y. S., Bae, G. Y., & Proctor, R. W. (2012). Referential coding contributes to the horizontal SMARC effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: HumanPerception and Performance, 38, 726-734.

Cho, Y. S., Choi, J. M., & Proctor, R. W. (2012). Likelihood of attending to the color word modulates Stroop interference. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 74, 416–429.

Kim, K., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2012). The relation between usability and business success in cell phones. Behaviour and Information Technology, 31,969-982.

Miles, J. D. & Proctor, R. W. (2012). Correlations between spatial compatibility effects: Are arrows more like locations or words? Psychological Research, 76,777–791.

Proctor, R. W. & Chen, J. (2012). Dissociating influences of key and hand separation on the Stroop color-identification effect. Acta Psychologica, 141, 39-47.

Shin, Y. K. & Proctor, R. W. (2012). Testing boundary conditions of the ideomotor hypothesis using a delayed response task. Acta Psychologica, 141, 360–372.

Yamaguchi, M. & Proctor, R. W. (2012). Multidimensional vector model of stimulus response compatibility. Psychological Review, 119, 272-303.

Zeng, L., Proctor, R. W., & Salvendy, G. (2012). User-based assessment of Web site creativity: A review and appraisal. Behaviour and Information Technology, 31, 383-400.

Zhang, Y., Proctor, R. W., & Wegner, D. T. (2012). Approach-avoidance actions or categorization? A matching account of reference valence effects in affective S-R compatibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 609–616.

Capaldi, E. J. & Proctor, R. W. (2012). Psychology of science: Influence on the philosophy of science. In R. W. Proctor & E. J. Capaldi (Eds.), Psychology of science: Implicit and explicit processes (pp. 40-56). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Proctor, R. W. & Capaldi, E. J. (2012). Introduction: Implicit and explicit processes in the psychology of science. In R. W. Proctor & E. J. Capaldi (Eds.), Psychology of science: Implicit and explicit processes (pp. 1-10). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Proctor, R. W. & Proctor, J. D. (2012). Sensation and perception. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (4th ed.; pp. 59-94). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2012). Human information processing. In N. M. Seel (Ed.) Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, Part 8 (pp. 1458-1460).Heidelberg/Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2012). Human information processing: An overview for human computer interaction. In J. Jacko (Ed.), The human-computer interaction handbook (3rd ed., pp. 21-40). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K.-P. L. (2012). Selection and control of action. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (4th ed.; pp. 95-116).
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Proctor, R. W., Vu, K.-P. L., & Salvendy, G. (2012). Cross-cultural decision making and action: Issues, challenges, and prospects. In R. W. Proctor, S. Nof, & Y. Yih, (Eds.), Cultural factors in systems design: Decision making and action (pp. 305- 319). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Proctor, R. W., Yamaguchi, M., & Miles, J. D. (2012). Acquisition and transfer of basic skill components. In A. F. Healy & L. E. Bourne, Jr., Training cognition:Optimizing efficiency, durability, and generalizability (pp. 89-111). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Vu, K.-P. L., Proctor, R. W., & Garcia, F. G. (2012). Web site design and evaluation. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (4th ed.; pp. 1323- 1353). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Baroni, G., Yamaguchi, M., Chen, J., &Proctor, R. W. (2013). Mechanisms underlying transfer of task-defined rules across feature dimensions. Experimental Psychology, 60, 410-424.

Chen, J., & Proctor, R. W. (2013). Response-effect compatibility defines the natural scrolling direction. Human Factors, 55, 1112 - 1129.

Cho, D. (T.), & Proctor, R. W. (2013). Object-based correspondence effects for action-relevant and surface-property judgments with keypress responses: Evidence for a basis in spatial coding. Psychological Research, 77, 618-636.

Jeong, K.-A., Salvendy, G., & Proctor, R. W. (2013). Smart-home interface design: Layout organization adapted to Americans’ and Koreans’ cognitive styles. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing and Service Industries, 23, 322–335.

Lien, M.-C., Jardin, E., & Proctor, R. W. (2013). An electrophysiological study of the object-based correspondence effect: Is the effect triggered by an intended grasping action? Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 75, 1862–1882.

Luo, C., & Proctor, R. W. (2013). Asymmetry of congruency effects in spatial Stroop tasks can be eliminated. Acta Psychologica, 143, 7-13.

Murchison, N. M., & Proctor, R. W. (2013). Spatial compatibility effects for unimanual and bimanual wheel-rotation responses: An homage to Guiard (1983). Journal of Motor Behavior, 45, 441-454. Nof, S. Y., … Proctor, R. W., …. & X.-C. Zhang. (2013). Laser and photonic systems integration: Emerging innovations and framework for research and education. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing and Service Industries, 23, 483-516.

Proctor, R. W. (2013). Stimulus affect valence may influence mapping-rule selection, but It does not reverse the spatial compatibility effect: Reinterpretation of Conde et al. (2011). Psychology & Neuroscience, 6, 3-6.

Proctor, R. W., Dunston, P. S., So, J. C. Y., Lopez-Santamaria, B. N., Yamaguchi, M., & Wang, X. (2013). Specificity of transfer in basic and applied perceptual-motor tasks. American Journal of Psychology, 4, 401-415.

Proctor, R. W., Yamaguchi, M., Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). Dissociation of S-R compatibility and Simon effects with mixed tasks and mappings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39, 593-609.

Proctor, R. W., Zhang, Y., & Vu, K.-P. L. (2013). Older and younger adults show comparable affective compatibility and Simon effects. Experimental Aging Research, 39, 44-69.

So, J. C. Y., Proctor, R. W., Dunston, P. S., & Wang, X. (2013). Better retention of skill operating a simulated hydraulic excavator after part-task than whole-task training. Human Factors, 55, 449-460.

Su, X., Dunston, P. S., Proctor, R. W., & Wang, X. (2013). Influence of training schedule on development of perceptual-motor control skills for construction equipment operators in a virtual training system. Automation in Construction, 35, 439–447.

Capaldi, E. J., & Proctor, R. W. (2013). Implications of postmodernism and its variants for the psychology of science. In G. Feist & M. Gorman (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of science (pp. 329-350). New York, NY: Springer.

Jolij, J., Johnson, A., & Proctor, R. W. (2013). The cognitive neuroergonomics of perception. In A. Johnson & R. W.

Proctor, R. W. (Eds.), Neuroergonomics: A cognitive neuroscience approach to human factors and ergonomics (pp. 26-50). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Proctor, R. W., & Vu, K.-P. L. (2013). Action selection. In A. F. Healy & R. W. Proctor (Eds.), Experimental psychology (2nd ed., pp. 295-319). Volume 4 in I. B. Weiner (Editor-in-Chief), Handbook of psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.