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Xinran Lehto

Research Interests

  • Destination marketing and planning
  • Consumer experiences and wellness in tourism
  • Specific market segments including family travelers and travelers with disabilities
  • traveler online behavior and decision making
  • Cross-cultural issues

Biography

Xinran Lehto is a Professor of Hospitality and Tourism Management at Purdue University. Prior to her academic appointments, Dr. Lehto spent 6 years working in the travel and tourism industry as a marketing executive in China and Singapore.

Dr. Lehto’s research expertise area is tourism marketing. Her research addresses how destinations can effectively market experience-based vacation products to unique segments such as family travelers. Much of her work is concerned with developing understanding of 1) how tourists interact with a destination through leisure and hospitality experiences; 2) what their motivations and images are; and 3) what personal, interpersonal and cultural factors contribute to their destination satisfaction. 

Dr. Lehto has written a total of 133 refereed papers, 58 of which are published in refereed international journals, including the top rated Annals of Tourism Research, Tourism Management and Journal of Travel Research. Dr. Lehto is the co-recipient of eight best paper awards from various international conferences and two Article of the Year awards from two refereed journals. Dr. Lehto also served as guest editor of a double issue of an international journal and serves on the editorial boards of four international academic journals.

Dr. Lehto emphasizes the ramifications of her research to the tourism and hospitality industry. She disseminates her research in a wide variety of forums including international conferences and colloquia, refereed journal articles, technical reports, and public presentations. She has worked closely with community agencies to evaluate and develop programs and strategies related to tourism and leisure services. Dr. Lehto has led or participated in a number of industry based marketing projects, resulting in 34 technical reports.

Education

  • PhD, Department of Forestry, Purdue University, 2000
  • MS, Purdue University, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 1997
  • MA, Department of English Language and Literature, Beijing University, 1989
  • BA, Department of English Language and Literature, Beijing University, 1986

Courses Taught

  • HTM 17300 (Introduction to Tourism)
  • HTM 23100 (Hospitality and Tourism Marketing)
  • HTM 35100 (E-Commerce for Hospitality and Tourism)
  • HTM 37200 (Global Tourism Geography)
  • HTM 50100 (Research Methods in Hospitality and Tourism)
  • HTM 60200 (PhD Seminar)

Awards & Honors

2013 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Best Paper Award for the paper "Hospitality Across Religions: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Perspective ". This was awarded at the 2013 Annual ISTTE conference in Detroit, Michigan. (Authorship: Ksenia Kirillova, Alsu Gilmetdinova and Xinran Lehto).

2013 Annual Graduate Education & Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management Best Paper in Tourism for the paper titled “Motivation Of Chinese Tourists: A Means-End Approach”. Dr. Lehto worked with her student Xiaoxiao Fu (Authorship: Xiaoxiao Fu, Liping Cai and Xinran Y. Lehto).

2012 Honorary Visiting Professor, Tourism College of Hunan Normal University, China. Awarded by the college for Dr. Lehto’s contributions to the internationalization of the college’s research platform and agenda.

2011 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Best Paper Award  for the paper “Having fun together: exploring leisure trip activity participation of Korean families with children of disabilities”. This was awarded at the 2011 Annual ISTTE conference in Miami, Florida. Dr. Lehto worked with her student Songee Kim (Authorship: Songee Kim and Xinran Y. Lehto).

2011 Asia-Pacific Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education (APac-CHRIE) Best Paper Award for the paper titled “Cognitive fit effects of online customer reviews on tourists’ information search”. This was one of the three best papers awarded at the 2011 Annual APac-CHRIE conference in Hong Kong, China. Dr. Lehto worked with her student Oun-Joung Park and colleagues (Authorship: Oun-Joung Park,  Xinran Y. Lehto, Joseph A. Ismail,  Liping A. Cai  & Mark R. Lehto).

2011 IS&T Itek Award (Society for Imaging Science and Technology) for the research “A web-based self-diagnosis tool to solve print quality issues”. This was awarded by Society for Imaging Science and Technology. Dr. Lehto contributed to the project as a research methodologist (Authorship: H. Santos, H. J. Park, R. Kumontoy, K. Low, M. Ortiz, C. W. Kim, P. Choe, S. Leman, K. Oldenburger, M. Lehto, X. Lehto, and J. P. Allebach).

2009-2010 International Scholar. Kyunghee University, Seoul, South Korea. Awarded to scholars with recognized publication record in the university’s effort to spur collaborative research and improve its research scholarship quality.

2009 Faculty Award of Merit, Gamma Sigma Delta Honor Society of Agriculture, Consumer and Family Science, and Veterinary Medicine. Gamma Sigma Delta is dedicated to recognizing academic achievement and accomplishments of students, faculty and alumni.

 2007 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Best Paper Award  for the paper “Affective image congruence between destinations and their  slogans”. This was awarded at the 2007 Annual ISTTE conference in Charleston, South Carolina. Dr. Lehto worked with her student Guan Jin Lee (Authorship:  Guan Jin Lee, Xinran Y. Lehto & Joseph Ismail).

2007   Arnold I. Cohen Faculty Development Award. Awarded by the Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University.

2006 Best Paper Award. Awarded by the International Conference of Tourism and the New Asia: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice, Beijing, China for the paper titled “Segmenting Chinese tourists by information sourcing variables: Focusing on the first-time visitors to Macau”. Dr. Lehto worked with her student Soojin Choi (Authorship: Choi, S. J., Lehto, X. Y., & Morrison, A. M.).

2005-2006 Hancook Faculty Fellow. Awarded by Purdue Center for Families. The Hancook Faculty fellowship recognizes and supports faculty research in the areas of family functioning and the health, well-being, and development of adults as individuals, parents, and partners.

2005 Invited Visiting Professor and Residential Researcher.  Awarded by the Institute For Tourism Studies (IFT), Macao, China. The IFT award recognizes research achievements of overseas scholars and brings in talents from all around the world to help establish a strong research base at IFT.

2005 Best Paper Award. Awarded by the International Conference on Destination Branding and Marketing for Regional Tourism Development, Macao Special Administrative Region, China for the paper titled “A correspondence analysis of web-based tourism information about Macao in English and Chinese: Implications for the destination marketing and branding of Macao”. Dr. Lehto worked with her student Soojin Choi and colleagues (Authorship: Tang, L., Choi, S. J., Morrison, A. M. & Lehto, X. Y.).

2001Martin Oppermann Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing Best Article of the Year Award. Awarded by Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing for the paper titled “Age and cohort effects: An examination of older Japanese travelers” (Authorship: Lehto, X. Y. & O’Leary, J. T.).

Recent Publications

Refereed Journal Articles in Print/Accepted:

  • Lehto, X. Y. (2012). Assessing the perceived restorative qualities of vacation destinations. Journal of Travel Research. Published and first available online 3 October 2012. 
  • Lehto, X. Y., Lee, G. J. & Ismail, J. (2012). Affective image congruence between destinations and their slogans. International Journal of Tourism Research. Published and available online 3 October 2012. 
  • Lehto*, X. Y., Lin, Y., Chen, Y., & Choi, S. Examining the interplay of cohesion and vacation activities in family travel context. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 29(8), 835-850. 
  • Kim*, S. Y. & Lehto*, X. Y. Projected and perceived destination brand personalities. Journal of Travel Research, 52 (1), 117-130.
  • Kim, S. Y. & Lehto, X. Y. Leisure Travel of Families of Children with Disabilities: Motivation and Activities. Tourism Management. Accepted, December 2012.
  • Miao, L., Lehto, X. Y., & Wei, W. The hedonic value of tourism consumption:  Evidence from spring break experiences. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management. Accepted December 2012.
  • Silkes*, C., Cai, L., & Lehto, X. Y. Dimensions of gastronomic cues in festival marketing materials. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. Accepted, 2012.
  • Forristal*, L.J., Lehto*, X.Y., & Lee, G. Native species and sense of place: The case of the Provençal Cicada. Current Issues in Tourism, Published and first available online 2 October 2012.
  • Park*, O. J., Lehto, X. Y., Houston, C. R., & McVay, E. M. Assessing competitive attributes of service quality in university foodservice. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 16 (3).
  • Fu*, X., Lehto, X.Y., & Cai, L.A. Culture-based interpretation of vacation consumption. Journal of China Tourism Research, 8: 320-333.   
  • Kluin*, J. & Lehto*, X. Y. (2012).   Measuring family reunion travel motivations. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 820-847.
  • Kim*, S. & Lehto*, X. Y. (2012). The voice of tourists with mobility disabilities: insights from online customer complaint websites. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24 (3), 451 – 476.
  • Choi*, S., Lehto, X. Y., Morrison, A. M., & Jang, S. (2012).  Structure of travel planning processes and information use patterns. Journal of Travel Research, 51 (1), 26-40.
    (Tier 1, HTM; SSCI Impact Factor of 1.579)
  • Chen*, Y., Lehto*, X. Y., & Cai, L.A. (2012). Activity pattern of family travelers in rural Southern Indiana. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 13 (1).
  • Forristal*, L.J., Marsh, D. G., & Lehto, X. Y. (2011).  Revisiting MacCannell's site sacralization theory as an analytical tool: Historic prophetstown as a case study. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13 (6), 570-582.
  • Brey*, E., Klenosky, D. K., Lehto, X., & Morrison, A. (2011) Understanding resort marketing practices. Journal of Tourism Insights, 2 (2), Article 2.
  • Choi*, H. Y., Lehto, X. Y., & Brey, E. T. (2011). Investigating resort loyalty: impact of the family life cycle. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 20 (1), 121- 141.
  • Li*, M., Cai, L. A., Lehto, X. Y., & Huang, Z (2010). A Missing link in understanding revisit intention-the role of motivation and image', Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(4), 335-348.
  • Santos*, H. J., Park, R., Kumontoy, K., Low, M., Ortiz, C. W., Kim, P., Choe, S. Leman, K. Oldenburger, Lehto, M., Lehto, X., & J. P. Allebach (2010). A web-based self-diagnosis tool to solve print quality issues. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 040503-1 – 040503-13. 
  • Lee*, J. K. & Lehto, X. Y. (2010). E-personalization and online privacy features: the case with travel websites.  Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 4 (March). 
  • Lehto*, X. Y., Choi, S. J., Lin, Y. C., & MacDermid, S. M. (2009). Vacation and family functioning. Annals of Tourism Research, 36 (3), 459–479.
  • Yun*, J. & Lehto, X. Y. (2009). Motives and patterns of family reunion travel. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 10(4), 279-300.
  • Forristal*, L. J. & Lehto, X. Y. (2009). Place branding with native species: Personality as a criterion. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 5(3), 213-225. 
  • Oh*, S. J., Lehto, X. Y., & Park, J. K. (2009). Travelers' intent to use mobile technologies as a function of effort and performance expectancy. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 18(8), 765-781.
    (Tier 1, HTM)
  • Chen*, Y., Lehto*, X. Y., & Choi, S. (2009). Effect of experience on cognition, affect and satisfaction: The case of Japanese visitors to Macau. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 18(2), 273-293.
  • Tang*, L., Choi, S., Morrison, A., & Lehto, X. Y. (2009). The many faces of Macau: A correspondence analysis of the images communicated by online tourism information sources in English and Chinese. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 15(1), 79-94.
  • Kim*, D.Y. Lehto, X., & Kline, S. (2009). Organizational channel discrepancies between CVBs and meeting planners in the U.S. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(2), 103-115.
  • Tang*, L., Morrison, A., Lehto, X., Kline, S. & Pearce, P. (2009). Effectiveness criteria for icons as tourist attractions: a comparative study between the U.S. and China. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 26(3), 284–302.
  • Park*, O. J., Lehto*, X. Y., & Park, J. K. (2008). Service failures and complaints in the family travel market: a justice dimension approach. Journal of Services Marketing, 22(7), 520-532.
  • Park*, O. J., Lehto, X. Y., & Morrison, A. M. (2008). Collaboration between CVB and local community in destination marketing: CVB executives' perspective, Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 17(3-4), 395-417.
  • Choi*, S., Lehto, X.Y., & Morrison, A. M. (2008). Segmenting Chinese tourists by information source variables: Focusing on first-time visitors to Macau. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 16 (1-2), 81-104.
  • Brey*, E. T. & Lehto*, X. (2008). Changing family dynamics: A force of change for the family-resort industry? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(2), 241-248.
  • Brey*, E. T., Klenosky, D. B.,  Lehto, X. Y., & Morrison, A. M. (2008). Standard hospitality elements at resorts: An empirical assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 47(2), 247-258.
  • Oldenburger*, K., Lehto*, X. Y., Feinberg, R., Lehto, M. R., & Salvendy, G. (2008). Customer interaction in E-business: Satisfying and dissatisfying experiences. Behavior & Information Technology, 27(1), 63 – 77.
  • Lehto*, X. Y., Jang, S. C., Achana, F. T., & O’Leary J. T. (2008) Exploring tourism experiences sought: A cohort comparison of baby boomers and the silent generation. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 14(3), 237-252.
  • Lehto*, X. Y., Douglas, A. C., & Park, J. K. (2007).  Mediating the effects of natural disasters on travel intention. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 23(2/3/4), 29-44.
  • Park*, J., Yang, S., & Lehto, X. Y. (2007), Adoption and usage of mobile technologies for Chinese consumers, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 31(3), 196-206.
  • So*, S. (A) & Lehto*, X. Y. (2007).  The situational influence of travel group composition: Contrasting family travelers with other travel parties. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 20(3-4), 79-91.
  • Choi*, S. J., Lehto*, X. Y., & O’Leary J. T. (2007). What does the consumer want from a DMO website? A study of US and Canadian tourists’ perspectives. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9(2), 59-72.
  • Brey*, E.T. & Lehto*, X. Y. (2007). The relationship between daily and vacation activities. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(1), 160-180.
  • Choi*, S. J., Lehto*, X.Y., & Morrison, A. M. (2007). Destination image representation on the web: Content analysis of Macao travel related websites. Tourism Management, 28(1), 118-129.
  • Kim*, D.Y., Lehto*, X. Y., & Morrison, A. M. (2007). Gender differences in online travel information search: Implications for marketing communications on the Internet. Tourism Management, 28 (2), 423-433.
  • Lin*, Y. C. & Lehto*, X. Y. (2006). A study of female traveler’s need trajectory and family life cycle. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 15(1), 65-88.
  • Lehto*, X. Y., Kim, D. Y., & Morrison, A. M. (2006). The effect of prior destination experience on online information search behavior. Tourism and Hospitality Research - The Surrey Quarterly Review, 6(2), 160-178.
  • Lehto*, X. Y., Brown, S., Chen, Y., & Morrison, A. M. (2006). Yoga tourists as a niche within the wellness tourism market. Tourism Recreation Research, 31(1), 25-36.
  • Choe*, P., Kim, C., Lehto, M. R., Lehto, X., & Allebach, J. (2006).  Evaluating and improving a Self-Help technical support website: Use of focus group interviews. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 21 (3), 333-354. 
  • Brown*, S. & Lehto*, X. Y. (2005). Traveling with a purpose: Understanding the motives and benefits of volunteer vacationers. Current Issues in Tourism, 8(6), 479-496.
  • Lee*, G. H., Morrison, A. M., Lehto, X. Y., Reid, J., & Webb, J. (2005). VFR: Is it really marginal? A financial consideration of French overseas travelers. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 11(4), 340-356. (VFR: Visiting Friends and Relatives)
  • Lehto*, X. Y., O’Leary, J. T., & Morrison, A. M. (2004). The effect of prior experience on vacation behavior. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 801-818.
  • Lehto*, X. Y., Cai, L. A.,O’Leary, J. T., & Huan, T. C. (2004). Tourist shopping preferences and expenditure behaviors: the case of Taiwanese outbound market. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(4), 320-332.
  • Oh*, Y. J. Cheng, C. K., Lehto, X. Y., & O’Leary, J. T. (2004). Predictors of tourists’ shopping behaviour: Examination of socio-demographic characteristics and trip typologies. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(4), 308-319.
  • Lehto*, X. Y., O’Leary, J. T., & Morrison, A. M. (2002). Do psychographics influence vacation destination choices? A comparison of British travelers to North America, Asia, and Oceania. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 8(2), 109-125.
  • Lehto*, X. Y., Morrison, A. M., & O’Leary, J. T. (2001). Does the visiting friends and relatives’ typology make a difference? A study of the international VFR market to the U.S.  Journal of Travel Research, 40(2), 201-212.
  • Lehto*, X. Y., O’Leary, J. T., & Lee, G. H. (2001). Mature international travelers: an examination of gender and benefits. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 9(1/2), 53-72. 
  • Cai*, L A., Lehto, X. Y., & O’Leary, J. T. (2001). Profiling the U.S.-bound Chinese travelers by purpose of trip. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 7(4), 3-17.
  • You *, X. & O’Leary, J. T. (2000). Age and cohort effects: An examination of older Japanese travelers. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 9(1/2), 21-42.
  • You*, X., O’Leary, J. T., Morrison, A. M., & Hong, G. S. (2000). A cross-cultural comparison of travel push and pull factors: United Kingdom vs. Japan. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 1(2), 1-26.
  • You*, X. & O’Leary, J. T. (1999). Destination behavior of senior UK travelers. Tourism Recreation Research, 24(1), 23-34.

Book chapters

  • 1. Park*, O. J., Cai. A. L., & Lehto, X. Y. (2009). Collaborative destination branding. In A. Cai, Liping, W. C. Gartner, & A. M. Munar (eds.), Tourism Branding: Communities in Action (pp.75 – 86). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.
  • 2. Kalkstein-Silkes*, C, Cai, L., & Lehto, X (2008). Conceptualizing Festival-based Culinary Tourism in Rural Destination. In C.M. Hall & L. Sharples, (Eds.), Food and Wine Festivals and Events Around the World: Development, management and markets (pp. 66-77). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • 3. Lehto*, X.Y., Park, J. K., Park, O. J., and Lehto, M.R. (2007). Text Analysis of consumer reviews: The case of virtual travel firms.  Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2007, Human Interface and the Management of Information. Methods, Techniques and Tools in Information Design, Volume 4557, 490-499. Springer.
  • 4. O'Leary*, J. T., Lehto*, X. Y., Cheng, C. K., & Oh, Y.-J. (2004). A synthesis of tourism research topics. In M. J. Manfredo, J. J. Vaske, B. L. Bruyere, D. R. Field, & P. J. Brown (Eds.), Society and natural resources: A summary of knowledge (pp.225-234). Jefferson, Michigan: Modern Litho.
  • 5. You*, X., O’Leary, J. T., & Fesenmaier, D. (2000). Knowledge management through the web: a new marketing paradigm for tourism organizations. In B. Faulkner, G. Moscardo, & E. Laws (Eds.), Tourism in the 21st century: Lessons from experience (pp.181-197). London and New York: Continuum.

Editorials

  •  Lehto, X. Y. (2008). Going green for the future. An editorial for the special double issue on green hospitality and tourism, Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 17(3-4), 259-261. 
  • International Refereed Conference Proceedings
  • 1. Kim*, S. E., Lehto*, X. Y., Miao, L., & Jaffe, W. (2012). Exploring the experience of cultural and art festival organized for people with disabilities. Proceedings of  the 18th Asia Pacific Tourism Association (APTA) Conference. June 26-29, 2012. Taipei, Taiwan.
  • 2. Mody*, M., Gordon, S., Lehto, X. Y., So, S., & Li, M. (2012). The augmented convention offering: the impact of destination and product images on benefit acquisition. Proceedings of  the 18th Asia Pacific Tourism Association (APTA) Conference. June 26-29, 2012. Taipei, Taiwan.
  • 3. Zhang*, W., Lehto, X. Y., Miao, L.(2012). Celebration of heritage: the dynamic relationship between community-based heritage events’ attributes and perceived value. Proceedings of the 18th Asia Pacific Tourism Association (APTA) Conference. June 26-29, 2012. Taipei, Taiwan.
  • 4. Park*, O. J. & Lehto, X. Y. (2012). Influence of online consumer reviews on travelers' attitude change. Proceedings of the 2012 TOSOK International Tourism Conference, July 4-6, Ulsan, South Korea.
  • 5. Kim*, S., Lehto, X. Y., & kandampully, J. (2012). The role of familiarity in determining consumers’ perceptions and visit intentions. Proceedings of the 2012 TOSOK International Tourism Conference, July 4-6, Ulsan, South Korea.
  • 6. Li*, Y., Miao, L., Zhao, X., & Lehto, X. Y. (2012). When family rooms become guest lounges: work family balance of B&B innkeepers. Proceedings of the 2012 TOSOK International Tourism Conference, July 4-6, Ulsan, South Korea.
  • 7. Zhang*, X., Fu, X., & Lehto, X. Y. (2012). Changes in leisure participation patterns of expatriates in China. Proceedings of the 17th Annual Graduate Education & Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, January 5-7, 2012, Auburn, AL.
  • 8. Chen*, Y., Lehto, X. Y., & Cai, L. (2012). Understanding antecedents of tourist subjective experience. Proceedings of the 17th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 5-7, Auburn, Alabama. 
  • 9. Fu*, X. & Lehto, X. Y. (2012). Perception of crowding and experience satisfaction in a beach setting: exploring the moderating effect of desired privacy. Proceedings of the 17th Annual Graduate Education & Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, January 5-7, 2012, Auburn, AL.
  • 10. Chen*, Y., Lehto, X. Y., & Cai, L. (2011). Effects of vacation on different dimensions of travelers’ subjective well-being. Proceedings of the 9th Asia-Pacific CHRIE (APacCHRIE) conference, June 2–5, Hong Kong, China.
  • 11. Fu*, X., Lehto, X.Y., & Cai, L.A. (2011). Linking island tourists' activity participation and satisfaction-evidence from Fiji. Proceedings of the 9th Asia-Pacific CHRIE (APacCHRIE) Conference, June 2-5, 2011, Hong Kong, SAR.
  • 12. Park*, O. J., Lehto*, X. Y., Ismail, J. A., Cai, L. A., & Lehto, M. R.(2011). Cognitive fit effects of online customer reviews on tourists’ information search. Proceedings of  the 9th Asia-Pacific CHRIE (APacCHRIE) Conference, June 2-5, 2011, Hong Kong, SAR.
  • 13. Fu*, X., Lehto*, X.Y., & Cai, L.A. (2011). Cultured divergence of consumption values in vacation experience. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Graduate Education & Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, January 6-8, 2011, Houston, TX.
  • 14. Miao*, L., Lehto, X. Y., & Wei, W. (2011). The hedonic experience of travel-related consumption. Proceedings of the 2011 I-CHRIE Annual Conference & Exposition, Denver, Colorado.
  • 15. So*, A. S., Li, M., & Lehto, X. Y. (2011). Perceptions of convention attendees towards Integrated Resort: A case study of Macau. Proceedings of the 2011 I-CHRIE Annual Conference & Exposition, Denver, Colorado.
  • 16. Kim, S. E. & Lehto*, X. Y. (2011). Leisure vacation of Korean family with disabled children: Motivation and activities. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 6–8, Houston, Texas.
  • 17. Chen*, Y., Lehto, X. Y., & Cai, L. (2011). Effect of vacation duration and frequency on travelers’ subjective well-being. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 6–8, Houston, Texas.
  • 18. Koerte*, T., Chen, Y., & Lehto, X.Y. (2011). The projected and received image of the United Republic of Tanzania. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 6–8, Houston, Texas.
  • 19. Chen*, Y., Lehto*, X. Y., & Cai, L. A. (2010). Effect of travel satisfaction on subjective well-being: The case of Chinese travelers. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 7–9, Dulles, Virginia.
  • 20. Miao*, L. & Lehto, X. (2010). Dynamic changes in affective forecasts in intertemporal consumption choices. Proceedings of the APA Annual Convention, San Diego, CA.
  • 21. Choi, H., Kim, S., & Lehto*, X. Y. (2010).  “Examining consumer preferences of spa tourism attributes”, Proceedings of the 68th TOSOK international tourism symposium. July 5-7, Busan, South Korea.
  • 22. Park*, O. J. & Lehto*, X. Y. (2010). Migrating to new hotels: Antecedents of travelers’ hotel switching. Proceedings of 15th Annual Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 7–9,Washington, DC.
  • 23. Park*, O. J. & Lehto, X. Y. (2010). Cognitive fit approach in measuring influence of online public review on tourists’ purchasing intention. Proceedings of 15th Annual Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, January 7–9,Washington, DC.
  • 24. Lehto*, X. Y., Lehto, M.R., Kim, S. & Lee, G. (2009). A conceptual framework for creating a quality wellness experience. Proceedings of 3rd Wuyi International Wellness Tourism Forum. November 17-19,  Wuyi, China.
  • 25. Chen*, Y., Park, J., & Lehto, X. Y. (2009). Contrasting perceptions of international and domestic hotel brand equity and their influences on satisfaction. Proceedings of 7th Asia-Pacific CHRIE 2009, May 28-31, Singapore.
  • 26. Chen*, S. Y., Lehto*, X. Y., & Silkes, C. (2009). Tourist shopping style typology and its influences on purchases. Proceedings of 7th Asia-Pacific CHRIE, May 28-31, Singapore.
  • 27. Forristal*, L. & Lehto, X. Y. (2009). A proposed cultural heritage framework for tourism development: The case of historic Prophetstown. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Students Research Conference on Hospitality and Tourism. Las Vegas, NV.
  • 28. Forristal*, L. & Lehto, X. Y. (2009). Place branding with native species. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Students Research Conference on Hospitality and Tourism. Las Vegas, NV.
  • 29. Kim*, S. E. & Lehto, X. Y. (2009). The voice of tourists with disabilities: Insights from third party complaint websites. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Students Research Conference on Hospitality and Tourism. Las Vegas, NV.
  • 30. Yun*, J. & Lehto, X. Y. (2009). Motives and patterns of family reunion travel. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Students Research Conference on Hospitality and Tourism. Las Vegas, NV.
  • 31. Chen*, Y., Lehto, X. Y., & Cai, L. (2009). The effect of vacation duration and frequency on travelers subjective wellbeing: A model based on theories of happiness. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Students Research Conference on Hospitality and Tourism. Las Vegas, NV.
  • 32. Chen*, Y., Lehto, X. Y., & Cai, L. (2008). Leisure activities and graduate students work and life. Proceedings of 2008 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Conference. September 30–October 2, Dublin, Ireland.
  • 33. Park*, O. J. & Lehto*, X. Y. (2008). Academic stress and leisure coping, Proceedings of the 13th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 3-5, Orlando, FL.
  • 34. Forristal*, L.J. & Lehto, X.Y. (2008). Native species contribution to sense of place: The case of the Provençal Cicada. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism.January 3-5, Orlando, FL.
  • 35. Chen*, Y., Lehto*, X. Y., & Choi, S. (2007). Effect of experience on cognition, affect and satisfaction: The case of Japanese visitors to Macau. Proceedings of 2007 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Conference. October 4-6, Charleston, South Carolina.
  • 36. Lee*, G. J., Lehto*, X. Y., and Ismail, J. (2007). Affective image congruence between destinations and their slogans. Proceedings of 2007 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Conference. October 4-6, Charleston, South Carolina.
  • 37. Park*, O. J., Cai, L. A., & Lehto, Y. X. (2007). Collaborative destination branding. Proceedings of 2007 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Conference. October 4-6, Charleston, South Carolina.
  • 38. Kalkstein-Silkes*, C. A., Cai, L. A., Lehto, X. Y., & Pearson, T. (2007). An Examination of stakeholder involvement and participation at rural festivals in Indiana: A qualitative analysis. Proceedings of 2007 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Conference. October 4-6, Charleston, South Carolina.
  • 39. Park*, O. J., Lehto*, Y. X., Houston, C. R., & McVay, E. M. (2007). Assessing competitive attributes of service quality in university foodservice, The 5th APac-CHRIE and the 13th Asia Pacific Tourism Association Joint Conference. May 24-27, Beijing, China.
  • 40. Oh*, S., Lehto, X., & Park, J. (2007). Travelers’ effort and performance expectancy on mobile technologies use intention. The 5th APac-CHRIE and the 13th Asia Pacific Tourism Association Joint Conference. May 24-27, Beijing, China.
  • 41. Park*, O. J., Lehto, X. Y., & Morrison, A.M.(2007). Collaboration between CVB and local community in destination marketing: CVB executive’s perspective. Proceedings of 12th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 4 – 6, Houston, Texas. 
  • 42. Chen*, Y. & Lehto, X. Y.(2007). Brand personality of spa destinations (resorts) on the web. Proceedings of 12th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 4 – 6, Houston, Texas. 
  • 43. Lee*, G. J. & Lehto, X. Y. (2007). Measuring effectiveness of destination slogans: An examination of brand image and awareness. Proceedings of 12th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 4 – 6, Houston, Texas. 
  • 44. Douglas*, A. C. & Lehto, X. Y.(2007). A Case study on the response of vacationers to South East Asia impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Proceedings of 12th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 4 – 6, Houston, Texas. 
  • 45. Lehto*, X. Y., Lin, Y. C., & Choi, S. J. (2006). Examining the interplay of cohesion and vacation activities in family travel context. Proceedings of 2006 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Conference. October 12-14, Las Vegas, Nevada.
  • 46. Chen*, Y., Lehto*, X. Y., & Cai, L. A.(2006). Family travelers’ activity preferences in rural area. Proceedings of 2006 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Conference. October 12-14, Las Vegas, Nevada.
  • 47. Li*, M., Cai, L. A., Lehto, X. Y., & Zhang, L. (2006). An examination of the relationship between destination image, travel motivation and loyalty.  Proceedings of 2006 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Conference. October 12-14, Las Vegas, Nevada.
  • 48. Choi*, S., Lehto*, X.Y., & Morrison, A. M. (2006). Segmenting Chinese tourists by information source variables: Focusing on first-time visitors to Macau. Proceedings of International Conference of Tourism and the New Asia:  Implications for Research, Policy and Practice. August 9-12, Beijing, China.
  • 49. Lehto*, X. Y., Choi, S., & Lin, Y. (2006). Exploring the impact of leisure travel on family functioning. Proceedings of The 37th Annual Conference Proceedings of Travel and Tourism Research Association. June 18-20, Dublin, Ireland.
  • 50. Kim*, D.Y., Lehto, X.Y., & Morrison, A. M. (2006). Tourist emotional engagement online: concepts, evolving themes, and conceptual framework. Proceedings of 11th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 5 – 7, Seattle, Washington.
  • 51. Park*, O. J. & Lehto, X. Y. (2006). Family vacation function and household role. Proceedings of 11th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in  Hospitality and Tourism. January 5 – 7, Seattle, Washington.
  • 52. Brey*, E. T. & Lehto, X. Y. (2005).  Family oriented destination resorts: A supply-side analysis of recreational amenities. Proceedings of 2005 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Conference. October 21-23, Chicago, Illinois.
  • 53. Oh*, J. Y., Lehto, X.Y,. Cheng, C. K., & O’Leary J. T. (2005). Cross-cultural study of tourist shopping behavior: An examination of preference and expenditure patterns of international tourists. Proceedings of 2005 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Conference. October 21-23, Chicago, Illinois.
  • 54. Lehto*, X. Y. & Jang, S. C. (2005). Exploring tourism experiences sought: A cohort comparison of baby boomers and the silent generation. Proceedings of 11th Annual Conference of  Asia-Pacific Tourism Association (APTA). July 7-10,  Goyang, South Korea.
  • 55. Choi*, S. J. & Lehto, X. Y. (2005). The effect of online leisure pastime on older people’s well-being. Proceedings of 11th Annual Conference of Asia-Pacific Tourism Association (APTA). ). July 7-10,  Goyang, South Korea.
  • 56. Park*, O. J., Lehto*, X. Y., & Park, J. K. (2005). Service failure in the family travel market: A critical incident technique approach. Proceedings of 11th Annual Conference of Asia-Pacific Tourism Association (APTA). ). July 7-10,  Goyang, South Korea.
  • 57. Lee*, J. K., Park, J. K., & Lehto, X. Y. (2005). Traveler usage of e-personalization features: Implications from privacy concerns. Proceedings of 11th Annual Conference of Asia-Pacific Tourism Association (APTA). ). July 7-10,  Goyang, South Korea.
  • 58. Choi*, S. J., & Lehto*, X. Y. (2005). What does the consumer want from a DMO Website?: A study of US and Canadian tourists’ perspectives. Proceedings of Tenth Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 5 – 7, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.
  • 59. Kim*, D. Y., Lehto, X. Y., & Morrison, A. M. (2005). Gender differences in online travel information search. Proceedings of Tenth Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. January 5 – 7.
  • 60. Lin*, Y. C., & Lehto*, X. Y. (2005). A study of female traveler’s need trajectory and family life cycle. Proceedings of Tenth Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, January 5 – 7, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.
  • 61. Park, O. J., Lehto*, X. Y., & Park, J. K. (2005). Travelers’ third party complaint behavior via online channel. First Virtual Conference of the Global Symposium for Consumer Sciences. Available: http://www.consumersciences.org/abstarct.html.
  • 62. So*, S. - I., Lehto*, X. Y., O’Leary, J. T., & Cheng, C. K. (2004). Traveling with family? An examination of the neglected Japanese travel segment. Proceedings of Second Asia Pacific CHRIE (APacCHRIE) Conference & the Sixth Biennial Conference on  Tourism in Asia. May 27-29, Phuket, Thailand.
  • 63. O’Leary*, J. T., Lehto*, X. Y., Cheng, C. K., and Oh, Y. J. (2004). A synthesis of tourism research topics. 10th International Symposium on Society and Resource Management (ISSRM), Colorado. June 2-6.
  • 64. Oh*, Y. J., Lehto, X. Y., and O'Leary, J.T. (2003). The hidden motivator: Assessing the role of tourism shopping. Proceedings of the 8th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 5-7, Las Vegas, Nevada.
  • 65. Vaske*, J. J., Donnelly, M. P., & Lehto, X. Y. (2002). Response format effects in front-country encounter norm questions. 9th International Symposium on Society and Resources Management. June 2-5, Bloomington, Indiana.
  • 66. Lehto, X. Y. (2001). Shedding lights on international travel market through secondary data analysis. 2001 National Recreation and Park Association Congress. October 3-6, Denver, Colorado.
  • 67. Lehto, X. Y. (2000). Data mining: the US In-Flight survey. The 5th Outdoor Recreation & Tourism Trends Symposium. September, 17-20, Lansing, Michigan.
  • 68. Cai*, L. A., You, X., & O’Leary, J. T. (2000). Understanding the US-bound Chinese travelers: marketing implications. Proceedings of Sixth Annual Conference of Asia Pacific Tourism Association.  June 28 – July 1, Phuket, Thailand.
  • 69. You*, X., & O’Leary, J. T. (1999). Philosophy, benefits and destination attributes: A comparison between UK travelers to Asia, North America and Oceania. Proceedings of Asia Pacific Tourism Association Fifth Annual Conference. August 23-25, Hong Kong, China.
  • 70. You*, X., O’Leary, J. T., & Nah, F. H. (1999). Knowledge sharing with customers on the WWW: approaches by national tourism organizations. Proceedings of 1999 Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS). August 13-15, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
  • 71. Huan*, T. C., O’Leary, J. T., Beaman, J., & You, X. (1999). Tourism product positioning by pleasure visitors’ pre-travel image and on-site image. Proceedings of Asia Pacific Tourism Association Fifth Annual Conference. August 23-25, Hong Kong, China.
  • 72. You*, X., O’Leary, J. T., & Glenn, T. (1998). A look at the U.S. meetings/conventions and incentive travel market. Proceedings of 1998 Travel and Tourism Research Association Conference (Canada Chapter). October 21-23, Toronto, Canada.

Refereed Poster Papers

  • 1. Chen*, B. & Lehto, X. Y. (2012).  Perceived summer camp attractiveness: perspectives of Chinese parents. The 17th Annual Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 5-7, 2012, Auburn, AL.
  • 2. Kim*, S. E. & Lehto, X. Y. (2012). Exploring the experience of cultural and art festival organized for people with disabilities. The 17th Annual Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 5-7, 2012, Auburn, AL.
  • 3. Zhang*, W., Lehto, X. Y., & Miao, L. (2012). Celebration of heritage: The dynamic relationship between community-based heritage event attributes and perceived value. The 17th Annual Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 5-7, 2012, Auburn, AL.
  • 4. Wen*, X. & Lehto, X. Y. (2012). Resort selection criteria of China's Only-Child consumers: relationship with personal values. The 17th Annual Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 5-7, 2012, Auburn, AL.
  • 5. Ghazali*, R. M. Lehto, X. Y., & Cai, L. A (2012). The role of emotion in experiencing destination: insights from social media. The 17th Annual Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 5-7, 2012, Auburn, AL.
  • 6. Shi*, Z. & Lehto, X. Y. (2012). Information Relevancy for Online Consumer Decision-making: The case of Hotel Booking through Online Travel Agencies. The 17th Annual Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 5-7, 2012, Auburn, AL.
  • 7. Fu*, X., Lehto, X.Y., & Cai, L.A. (2012). Conceptualizing Confucianism-based behavioral model-The Chinese consumer in the global travel marketplace. The 17th Annual Graduate Education & Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, January 5-7, 2012, Auburn, AL.
  • 8. Fu*, X. & Lehto, X. Y. (2011). Perception of crowding and experience satisfaction in a beach setting: exploring the moderating effect of desired privacy. The 2011 Annual Conference of International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE), October 20-22, 2011, Miami, FL.
  • 9. Fu*, X., Zhang, W., & Lehto, X. Y. (2011). Facilitating attendee’s social experience at conventions. The 2011 Annual Conference of International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE), October 20-22, 2011, Miami, FL.
  • 10. Lee*, C. & Lehto, X. Y. (2011). Influence of life events on retirees' consumptive behavior of leisure and hospitality products. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. Houston, Texas, January 6–8.
  • 11. Choe*, Y., Lehto, X. Y., & Day, J. (2011). The influence of environmental values, economic values and social structure on consumers’ choice of green hotels: The case for luxury hotels.  Proceedings of the 16th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. Houston, Texas, January 6–8.
  • 12. Mosley*, M., Lehto, X., & Day, J. (2011). The influence of jazz festival experience on tourist behavior. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. Houston, Texas, January 6–8. 
  • 13. Kim*, S. Y. & Lehto, X. Y. (2009). What do I say about myself vs. what do others say about me: An analysis of projected and perceived brand personality of South Korea. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Students Research Conference on Hospitality and Tourism. Orlando, FL.
  • 14. Choi*, H. Y. & Lehto, X. Y. (2008). Measuring spa products and spa destinations. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, Orlando, Florida, January 3-5.
  • 15. Kim*, S. E. & Lehto*, X. Y. (2008). Investigating quality of tourism web sites provided for tourists with disabilities. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, Orlando, Florida, January 3-5.
  • 16. Chen*, Y., Douglas, A. C., & Lehto, X. Y. (2008). Spa resort atmospherics: The environment’s influence on behavior intentions through affect and cognition. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, Orlando, Florida, 3-5 January.
  • 17. Kilchyk*, I., Kavanaugh, R., & Lehto, X. Y. (2008). Study of Person-job fit in front office non-managerial employees in Midwestern Hotels. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 3-5, Orlando, FL.
  • 18. Chen*, S. Y. &  Lehto, X. Y. (2008). Developing Tourist Shopper Style Inventory. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 3-5, Orlando, FL.
  • 19. Lee*, S. & Lehto, X. Y. (2008). Factors impacting willingness to travel with pets. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism. January 3-5, Orlando, Florida.
  • 20. Forristal*, L.J. & Lehto, X.Y. (2007). Native species and sense of place: A conceptual framework. International Hospitality & Tourism Virtual Conference. April, 2007.
  • 21. Yang*, S., Park, J., & Lehto, X. (2007). An exploration of determinants of intention to adopt mobile devices for travel: a multi-national study. Proceedings of 2007 International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE) Conference. Charleston, South Carolina, October 4-6.
  • 22. Cheng*, C. K., Oh, J. Y., Lehto, X. Y., & O’Leary, J. T. (2005). Examining the trends for tourism dissertation, 1953-2003. Poster session presented at 2005 National Park and Recreation Association (NRPA) Leisure Research Symposium. San Antonio, Texas.  October 18-22.
  • 23. Brey*, E. T., Edwards*, A., & Lehto, X. Y. (2005). The growing minority travel market in the US: implications for destination resorts. Poster session presented at the Tenth Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, January 5 – 7.  

Invited Professional Presentations, Speeches and Workshops

  • 1. Lehto, X. Y. (2012). State of the Art Research Techniques. Conducted a two day workshop for faculty and graduate students at College of Tourism Management, Hunan Normal University. June 15 & 16. Changsha, China.
  • 2. Lehto, X. Y. (2011). Current Tourism Research. Invited speaker at Beijing International Studies University, June 13, Beijing, China.
  • 3. Lehto, X. Y. (2011). Tourism and Well-being. Invited speaker at College of Tourism Management, Hunan Normal University, June 10, Changsha, China.
  • 4. Lehto, X. Y. (2010). Destination branding and marketing. Invited keynote speaker at China Tourism Creative Development Forum, Zhejiang University, May 16, Hangzhou, China.
  • 5. Lehto, X. Y. (2010). Destination Promotional slogan effectiveness. Invited speaker at College of Tourism Management, Hunan Normal University.  May 12, Changsha, China.
  • 6. Lehto, X.Y. (2009). Tourism Research and Market Trends in China. Invited speaker, BKBK 21 Program Special Lecture Series, Cheju National University, December 3, Cheju, South Korea.
  • 7. Lehto, X.Y. (2009). Tourism Career Development Employment Invited guest lecturer, College of Hotel & Tourism Management, Kyung Hee University, November 10, Seoul, South Korea.
  • 8. Lehto, X. Y. (2009). Wellness Experience at Hot Spring Destinations. Invited keynote speaker, 2009 International Wellness Tourism Summit Forum, Nov 18, Wuyi, China.
  • 9. Lehto, X. Y. ( 2009). PMU dining services customer satisfaction. Presented to the marketing managers of Purdue Housing & Food Services and Purdue Memorial Union.  West Lafayette, Indiana.
  • 10. Lehto, X. Y. (2008). Harrison County Welcome/Visitor Center Return on Investment. A presentation conducted to an audience of Harrison County Convention and Visitors Bureau staff, board members and Indiana Welcome/Visitor Center Volunteer workers. Corydon, Indiana.
  • 11. Lehto, X. Y. (2007). Branding Research and Practices in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry. China Academic of Science, Chengdu (CASC). A presentation and workshop conducted to an audience of researchers from CASC, CVB officials and University professors in Sichuan Province, China.
  • 12. Lehto, X. Y. (2007). Purdue Tourism Research and Engagement, an invited presentation/e-conference to an audience of extension educators in Indiana as part of the Unlocking Purdue’s Treasure Chest series, May, 2007. West Lafayette, Indiana.
    13. Lehto, X. Y. (2006). Marketing Strategies and Service. Invited speaker at the 2006 Summer Cochran Fellowship Program, Purdue University. West Lafayette, Indiana.
  • 14. Lehto, X. Y. (2006). Building a Stronger Economy through Tourism. Invited speaker at the “Unlocking Purdue’s Treasure Chest Program”, hosted by Purdue Cooperative Extension service. West Lafayette, Indiana.
  • 15. Lehto, X. Y. (2006). Mediating the Effect of Natural Disasters on Tourist Visit Intention. Invited speaker at the International Conference of Tourism and the New Asia, hosted by Peking University and China National Tourism Administration. Beijing, China.
  • 16. Morrison, A. & Lehto, X. Y. (2005). Image, Positioning and Branding in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry. A three day industry workshop to an audience of hotel and resort managers in Macao, organized by Institute For Tourism Studies (IFT), Macao, China.
  • 17. Lehto, X. Y. (2006). Harrison County Image Study (2005). Presented to a wide audience including a mix of business leaders, elected officials, residents, and industry practitioners from Harrison County, Indiana, April, 18th, 2005. Corydon, Indiana.
  • 18. Lehto, X. Y. (2006). Harrison County Visitor Profile Study (2005). Presented to a wide audience including a mix of business leaders, elected officials, residents, and industry practitioners from Harrison County, Indiana, April, 18th, 2005.
  • 19. Lehto, X. Y. (2005). Research in the Family Travel Market. Presented to the Strategic Council of the Purdue Center for Families. October, 2005. Purdue University.
  • 20. Lehto, X. Y. (2002). Shedding Lights on International Travel Trends. Presented at the Colorado Governor’s Conference on Tourism. Denver, Colorado.

Industry Project-based Technical Reports

  • 1. Lehto, X. Y., Park, O. J., & Kim, S.E. (2009). PMU dining services customer satisfaction study. Submitted to Purdue Memorial Union, Purdue University.
  • 2. Lehto, X. Y., Cai, L. & Yi, C. (2008). Harrison County Visitor/Welcome Center Study. Submitted to Harrison County Convention & Visitors Bureau, Indiana.
  • 3. Lehto, X. Y., Choi, H. Y., and Park, O. J. (2008). Cary Knight Spot Grill customer survey spring 2008. Submitted to Purdue Memorial Union, Purdue University.
  • 4. Lehto, X. Y., Choi, H. Y., and Park, O. J. (2008). Harrison Grill customer survey spring 2008. Submitted to Purdue Memorial Union, Purdue University.
  • 5. Lehto, X. Y. & Park, O. J. (2008). Purdue Union Club Hotel Customer Survey.  Submit to the Purdue Memorial Union, Purdue University.
  • 6. Lehto, X. Y. & Park, O. J. (2008). Purdue Union Club Hotel Customer Survey.  Submitted to Purdue Memorial Union, Purdue University.
  • 7. Lehto, X. Y. & Park, O. J. (2007). PSUB Leisure and Recreation Program Survey. Submitted to Purdue Memorial Union, Purdue University.
  • 8. Lehto, X. Y. & Park, O. J.(2006). PMU marketing survey fall 2005. Submitted to Purdue Memorial Union, Purdue University.
  • 9. Choi, S. J., Lehto, X. Y., & Morrison, A.M. (2006). Information search and decision making behaviors of visitors to Macao. Submitted to Macao Institute For Tourism Studies, Macao.
  • 10. Lehto, X. Y., Park, O. J., & Cai, L. A. (2006). PMU marketing survey fall 2005. Submitted to Purdue Memorial Union, Purdue University.
  • 11. Cai, L. A., Ismail, J., & Lehto, X. Y. (2005). Harrison county visitor profile study. Submitted to the Harrison County Convention & Visitors Bureau, Corydon, Indiana.
  • 12. Cai, L. A., Lehto, X. Y., & Ismail, J. (2005). Harrison county image study. Submitted to the Harrison County Convention and Visitors Bureau, Corydon, Indiana.
  • 13. Lehto, X. Y., & Ceurvorst, R. (2004). Colorado welcome center study 2003-2004: Yearly on-site survey. Submitted to Colorado Office of Economic Development & International Trade, Colorado.
  • 14. Lehto, X. Y., & Ceurvorst, R. (2004). Colorado welcome center study 2003-2004: Yearly follow-up survey. Submitted to Colorado Office of Economic Development & International Trade, Colorado.
  • 15. Lehto, X. Y., & Ceurvorst, R. (2003). Colorado welcome center study 2002-2003: Yearly on-site survey. Submitted to Colorado Office of Economic Development & International Trade, Colorado.
  • 16. Lehto, X. Y., & Ceurvorst, R. (2003). Colorado welcome center study 2002-2003: Yearly follow-up survey. Submitted to Colorado Office of Economic Development & International Trade, Colorado.
  • 17. Lehto, X. Y. (2003). Fort Collins conversion study of promotional efforts of 2002. Submitted to the Fort Collins Convention & Visitors Bureau, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • 18. Lehto, X. Y. (2002). Developing a method for managing data for Fort Collins Convention & Visitors Bureau: Final report. Submitted to Fort Collins Convention & Visitors Bureau, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • 19. Vaske, J., Donnelly, M. P., & Lehto, X. Y. (2002). Visitor crowding and normative tolerances at congested areas of Rocky Mountain National Park. Submitted to Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado.
  • 20. Lehto, X. Y. (2002). Fort Collins conversion study of promotional efforts of 2001. Submitted to the Fort Collins Convention & Visitors Bureau, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • 21. O’Leary, J. T., Hill, A., Sorzabal, A. A., & Lehto, X. Y. (2001). Outdoor recreation and the NSRE: An examination of involvement patterns: Final report. Submitted to US Forest Service.
  • 22. You, X., O’Leary, J. T., & Glenn, T. (1998). Preliminary analysis on the U.S. meetings/conventions and incentive travel market. Submitted to Canadian Tourism Commission.
  • 23. Morrison, A. M., You, X., & Bai, X. (1997). Hamilton County Convention & Visitors Bureau conversion study of direct-response advertising 1996. Submitted to Hamilton County Convention & Visitors Bureau, Indiana.
  • 24. Morrison, A. M., You, X., & Bai, X. (1997). Conner Prairie conversion study of direct-response advertising 1996. Submitted to Conner Prairie Convention & Visitor Bureau, Fishers, Indiana.
  • 25. Morrison, A. M., You, X., & Bai, X. (1997). Howard County Convention & Visitors Bureau conversion study of direct-response advertising. Submitted to Howard County Convention & Visitors Bureau, Kokomo, Indiana.
  • 26. Morrison, A. M., You, X., & Bai, X. (1997). Greater Pittsburgh Convention & Visitors Bureau conversion study of direct-response advertising for1996. Submitted to the Greater Pittsburgh Convention & Visitors Bureau, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  • 27. Morrison, A. M., Sung, H. S., & You, X. (1997). Greater Pittsburgh visitor profile study. Submitted to the Greater Pittsburgh Convention & Visitors Bureau, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  • 28. Morrison, A. M., Sung, H. S., & You, X. (1997). Brown County visitor profile study. Submitted to the Brown County Convention & Visitors Bureau, Nashville, Indiana.
  • 29. Morrison, A. M., Sung, H. S., & You, X. (1997). Bloomington/Monroe County visitor profile study. Submitted to the Bloomington/Monroe County Convention & Visitors Bureau, Indiana.
  • 30. Morrison, A. M., You, X., and Sung, H. S. (1996). Conversion study of direct-response advertising. Submitted to Brown County Convention & Visitors Bureau, Nashville, Indiana.
  • 31. Morrison, A. M., Sung, H. S. & You, X.(1996). Conversion study of direct-response advertising. Submitted to Brown County Convention & Visitors Bureau, Nashville, Indiana.
  • 32. Morrison, A. M., Braunlich, C. G., Sung, H. S., Nadkarni, N., & You, X. (1996). Glen Oak Country Club member analysis study, Glen Ellyn, Illinois.
  • 33. Morrison, A. M., You, X., Sung, H.S., & Cai, L. A. (1996). Conversion study of direct-response advertising. Submitted to Springfield Convention & Visitors Bureau, Springfield, Missouri.
  • 34. Morrison, A. M., Cai, L. A., & You, X. (1996). Conversion study of direct-response advertising (1996). Submitted to Hamilton County Convention & Visitors Bureau, Noblesville, Indiana.