Employee Retention Guide
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- Creating a Welcoming Environment for New Employees
- Retention Tools for Supervisors
- Welcoming Diversity in the Workplace
- Additional Considerations for Faculty Retention
- Quick Reference Guide for Building an Inclusive Work Environment
- Purdue University Resources for Employee Retention
Purdue University is committed to equal employment opportunity for all, regardless of race, religion, color, sex, age, national origin or ancestry, marital status, parental status, sexual orientation, disability, or veteran status.
The University recognizes that the entire academic enterprise is strengthened by enlarging its community of well-qualified individuals and providing role models for its faculty, staff, and students. Indeed, a proactive stance in support of equity and diversity broadens the cultural richness of the institution and enhances its vitality and reputation.
Hiring supervisors are charged with the immediate responsibility for recruiting, supporting, assisting, mentoring, and thus retaining employees with a diversity of backgrounds and experiences. We recognize there are challenges to intentional and thoughtful fostering of diversity and the Office of Institutional Equity and Human Resource Services staffs are available to assist and direct supervisors in these activities. Purdue University, as an academic institution, shares the responsibility of attracting and retaining capable and ambitious individuals, including those from traditionally underrepresented groups.
The purpose of this web page is to provide a resource for all supervisors at the University in their efforts to retain qualified and engaged employees. As such, supervisors may wish to use the document in its entirety or refer to specific sections as needed.
Creating a welcoming environment begins with the first contact a potential applicant has with the University. For many applicants, this first contact will be the job advertisement. Hiring supervisors are cautioned to review ads for language that may not be welcoming to all qualified individuals. For example, some departments, in crafting language for job advertisements, talk about the quality of life offered by the Lafayette/West Lafayette community, mentioning that it is a family friendly place. There is nothing illegal about this statement. However, it sends a message that those individuals with families are welcome and those who do not have families may not feel comfortable and/or welcome at Purdue or in the community at large. A more appropriate comment for a job advertisement could include objective information about the community, such as its size, location, available recreational activities, and/or cultural offerings.
According to research reported in The Seven Hidden Reasons Employees Leave, the top two reasons exiting employees gave for leaving an organization are:
- The job or workplace not living up to expectations, and
- The mismatch between job and person. [see item 4 in bibliography]
The job interview is the perfect time to establish for the potential employee a realistic picture of the job, the unit, the organization, and what it is like to work at Purdue. Also, supervisors should be aware that everything about an interview sends a message to the candidate and establishes the foundation of a possible future working relationship. For example, candidates who are on campus for a full day interview and who receive an agenda without scheduled break time may perceive the department or supervisor to be unaware of personal concerns or just plain inconsiderate.
Once a candidate has accepted the invitation for an on campus interview, hiring supervisors should take the opportunity to ask the candidate if s/he has any special requests or needs. For example, candidates from underrepresented groups may request to meet with other employees from their affinity group. A meeting of this type should be arranged for a candidate, if requested. However, an overzealous supervisor should be cautioned against inviting a member of the affinity group to be a part of each interview session throughout the interview day if doing so would give the false impression that there are many individuals from the affinity group working within a unit when in fact there are not. On another note, an individual with dietary restrictions may wish to the let the supervisor know of these in advance so that an appropriate eating establishment can be selected if a meal is to be included in the interview day.
Once a candidate has accepted a position at the University, either verbally or in writing, it is beneficial for the supervisor to maintain contact with the individual during the period before employment begins. Supervisors may wish to send a letter to the candidate outlining details of the agreed upon first day, such as start time and location, information on obtaining a parking permit, and documents required by the federal government to prove legal work status. Supervisors should include their contact information and a statement welcoming the individual to Purdue. For those candidates for whom the time between the acceptance and the start of work is considerable, supervisors are encouraged to maintain contact with the individual on a regular basis.
Announcements to the unit as to the new employee's name and the individual's start date should be made to the entire unit by the supervisor. Supervisors may wish to convey this information at a staff meeting, via e-mail, or a memo. Regardless of the method of communication used, this message should come from the supervisor or department head and should include statements suggesting ways that employees can welcome the newcomer to the unit, such as introducing themselves to the new employee. Nothing speaks louder to an unwelcoming environment than when a new employee shows up for the first day of work and colleagues are taken by surprise at his/her arrival and convey this message to the new employee.
Supervisors wishing to ease the transition into the unit for the new employee can ask a senior member of the unit to provide institutional information to the new employee when s/he comes on board and for the first few months of employment. A veteran employee can assist a new staff member with unwritten office practices, such as dress code when uniforms are not required, as well as with University events, such as participation in Spring Fling.
In preparation for the employee's first day, supervisors should:
- Arrange a meeting with the unit Business Manager to complete any necessary paperwork for employment.
- Have the employee's computer account access set up, or at the least, in process.
For the employee's first day, supervisors should:
- Meet the new employee at the time and location designated in the letter of offer.
- Introduce the new employee to his/her colleagues/co-workers.
- Help the new employee obtain a Purdue I.D. and parking permit.
- Invite the new employee to lunch, either with you or with you and your staff. Give the new employee the option of choosing the day as some people may have already made plans for the first day of work, not knowing what to expect in the new workplace.
- Show the new employee where supplies are located for the office staff and explain who to contact for other needed supplies.
- Conduct unit level orientation, where applicable.
During the first weeks of employment, supervisors are encouraged to be in contact with the new employee on a regular basis regarding the status of his/her position, the work environment, and to be available for questions. Ensuring a smooth transition to employment at Purdue and/or in a new unit can go along way toward increasing employee retention in the long term. Building a strong, positive, and professional relationship from the beginning lays the foundation for a positive employment experience for all parties involved.
“[A]s a rule, people join companies and leave managers? [see item 13 in bibliography]
Employees resign from their positions for a variety of reasons, many of which are truthfully shared with a supervisor at the time the employee tenders his/her resignation. Reasons such as better pay, better job, or the transfer of a spouse or partner are frequently given. However, a recent study by the Saratoga Institute of over 19,000 employees identified seven “hidden?reasons that employees leave their jobs that are directly tied to their interactions with supervisors and perceptions of key organizational leaders. Those reasons are not necessarily always shared with supervisors. They are:
- The job or workplace not living up to expectations.
- The mismatch between job and person.
- Too little coaching and feedback.
- Too few growth and advancement opportunities.
- Feeling devalued and unrecognized.
- Stress from overwork and work-life imbalance.
- Loss of trust and confidence in senior leaders.
[see item 4 in bibliography]
Information in this section of retention tools is offered to give supervisors tools to address the first six of these reasons, over which they have direct control.
There are many ways in which supervisors can enhance two-way communication and there is no one way that is always correct to use in any situation. Following are a few suggestions for enhancing two-way communications between supervisors and employees. Supervisors are encouraged to select a method that best suits the needs of the situation and the individuals involved.
- Open Door Policy. Many supervisors state that they have an informal “open door?policy, one in which employees may bring comments, questions, or concerns to the supervisor any time the supervisor's office door is open. This communication style works well when the supervisor is truly able to accommodate “drop in?interruptions and is willing to give the employee his/her full attention. The downside of opting for this type of communication practice and not being able to adhere to it on the part of the supervisor is that it can create animosity between the supervisor and his/her subordinates. Supervisors choosing to implement this practice should be prepared to give attention to the employee and to respond to his/her concerns.
- Management by Walking Around. Many supervisors are familiar with this communication tool and have found it to be useful in building a relationship with staff and getting to know the unit's strengths and needs. Supervisors need only to get out of their office and talk with staff in their work place. Some supervisors take this a step further and choose to perform work duties along side employees, when appropriate, in order to familiarize themselves with the employees?workload and work experiences. The key to this method is that supervisors have to be sincere and prepared to act on employees?suggestions when they stop by and ask employees for their ideas on how to make things better. [see item 4 in bibliography]
- 50/50 Meetings. Hold 50/50 meetings with employees, where management speaks for 50% of the time on their goals, strategies, and ideas, then gives the floor to employees to respond for the rest of the meeting time. These kinds of meetings can be conducted over breakfast, lunch, or during regular staff meetings. [see items 4 and 29 in bibliography]
Of course, there are others ways that supervisors may enhance two-way communication with employees, including allowing time during the annual performance review or regular one-on-one meetings to discuss issues of concern to the employee.
Developing Communication with New or Existing Employees Regarding the Job, the Unit, and the Work Environment
As mentioned in the Creating a Welcoming Environment section, two of the top seven hidden reasons that employees leave an organization are:
- The job or workplace not living up to expectations, and
- The mismatch between job and person. [see item 4 in bibliography]
And, while these two points are important to know as the hiring process progresses, they are also important to keep in mind once an individual becomes an employee. Particularly at this time in Purdue's history, many changes are taking place and employee roles may be altered in response to those changes. Some individuals, by nature, are more adaptable to changing circumstances than are others. Employees who are quite comfortable performing the same job that they have performed for the last 20 years may not be in favor of impending changes. These employees who are resistant to the many changes taking place may feel that a mismatch has been created between the job and themselves and/or that the workplace is not living up to their previous expectations. Supervisors are the “front line?defense against employee attrition during the implementation of these changes and should invest time in communicating with their employees about the changes, in getting feedback from employees about these changes, and in responding to employee concerns.
The proper groundwork should be laid for avoiding these situations beginning with the first day on the job for the new employee. One key to avoiding this trap is getting to know your employees. Supervisors are encouraged to learn from employees things such as what motivates them, how often do they like feedback, and for what projects or jobs the employee's skills are best suited.
The following questions may be used by a supervisor to get to know his/her employees better. It is not necessary to ask all employees all of these questions in one session. Select a few that will focus on the areas relevant to the needs of the employee and/or the unit and begin there. Also, it is not necessary to wait until the annual performance review to discuss any of the items below, however, questions such as these may be included in an annual review discussion.
- How are things going today?
- What is the best thing about your job?
- What is the best thing about Purdue?
- What is the worst thing about your job?
- What is the worst thing about Purdue?
- If we could change anything to improve our service to the customer*, what would it be?
- If we could change anything to make your job better/easier, what would it be?
- What is the most frustrating element about your job right now?
- What is the most satisfying element about your job right now?
- Why do you continue to work here? Why do most of your coworkers remain on the job?
- What do you think about _____________? (new procedure, new plan, etc.)
- How could we run Purdue/this unit better?
- Where should we go to recruit more great employees like you?
- How can I help you in doing your job more efficiently?
[see items 5 and 29 in bibliography]
*depending on your campus unit, your “customers?may be students, faculty, staff, alumni, donors, or campus visitors, or a combination of any of these.
A word of caution about soliciting feedback: Supervisors should be prepared to take action on the information provided. Typically, a poor working environment is made worse when suggestions for improvement are solicited and not acted upon. This does not mean that supervisors have to implement every suggestion that every staff member makes. It does mean that supervisors should research reasonable suggestions or requests--AND share information that is learned with the employee. Even if it is not possible to implement an employee's suggestion, the fact that the supervisor listened, sought a solution, and provided feedback to the employee will go a long way in the development of positive communication. Also, supervisors may wish to consider alternatives to the employee's suggestion if implementing the suggestion as recommended is not possible.
If you need assistance in crafting questions relevant to your staff or unit, please contact the AAO.
From the two way communication enhancements recommended above, supervisors may learn what it is that motivates an employee in his/her work at Purdue. Using this information, supervisors may find personal ways to recognize and reward employees outside the arena of compensation and benefits.
It is recommended that supervisors recognize employees in the way that is meaningful to the employee. For example, one employee may prefer a public ceremony when receiving a plaque for outstanding work; another employee may prefer something more private, such as receiving the plaque directly from the supervisor without any fanfare.
Suggestions for rewarding and/or recognizing employees include:
- Team lunch
- A supervisor should consider individual employee's culture and personal needs and preferences when food is to be a part of any work related activity. For example, some cultures forbid certain meat products and others require meat to be prepared in specific ways. Also, some individuals have dietary restrictions due to health needs and to personal preferences. Restaurants for team lunches should be agreed upon by the entire team, with choices offered in such a way as to allow everyone to be comfortable in voicing his/her preference.
- Bring in snacks or other treats, especially as a way to reward a work group for a job well done on a recent project.
- Recognize birthdays
- If a unit chooses to celebrate employee birthdays, doing so can be a wonderful way to recognize an individual for his/her contributions to a unit in a way that is meaningful to him/her. A few suggestions are listed below, but supervisors are encouraged to be creative and respectful in honoring an employee.
- Sugar-free dessert for individuals with dietary restrictions or who are watching their weight
- A card signed by everyone in the unit
- Flower arrangement
- Tickets to a movie, Purdue Convocations, or a Purdue athletic event
- Recognize special events in an employee's life, e.g. passing a certification examination, completing a training program, obtaining a college degree, or length of service at Purdue. Recognition may include a small gift, a luncheon, a cake, a trophy, plaque, certificate, gift certificate, tickets to Purdue events, whatever the person is most likely to appreciate.
- A personal note is one of the most appreciated ways to recognize an employee for job well done [see item 7 in bibliography]
- Encourage employees to participate in Spring Fling, where possible
- Lunch or breakfast meeting
Another one of the top seven reasons that people leave their jobs is “too little coaching and feedback.?[see item 4 in bibliography] Employees need to have job expectations clearly defined, to be provided with the requisite tools and training, [see item 5 in bibliography] and to be given appropriate feedback on their performance. If all of these things are happening in a way that should make sense to the employee and there are still performance problems, supervisors should be aware that the job and the person may not be a good match and look for ways to assist the employee in either improving his/her performance or finding another job. Poor work behaviors should always be addressed as soon as possible. A good retention plan should retain the good performers. Having a retention plan in place does not necessarily mean retaining all employees all the time.
In designing reinforcements for performance, keep in mind that supervisors should not only pursue progressive discipline for poor performance, good performers should be rewarded for positive performance. One way to reinforce positive performance is to tie the desired behaviors to the performance review. Employees should be made aware at the onset of their employment and again at the annual review what is expected of them in their job and how meeting these expectations will be tied to the annual performance review. A word of caution, all performance, both good and bad, should be discussed with employees on a regular basis and immediately when crisis situations arise. Withholding all feedback until the annual performance review is not recommended. The contents of the annual review should not be a surprise to the employee. Also, younger employees who are used to receiving feedback more frequently than yearly may leave a company before the year is up, thinking that there must be nothing good about their performance if no positive comments were given.
The work environment can be a critical factor in determining whether or not an employee stays with an organization. A great job in a poor quality workplace is just not worth the effort for many people in today's work force. This is particularly true for individuals currently in the workforce who seek more of a work/life balance than perhaps their counterparts from past generations who tended to put work ahead of other activities.
Of critical consideration to creating and maintaining a positive work environment for supervisors of today's workforce is valuing the diversity and unique experiences that each individual brings to the work place. Purdue's ideal work environment is one in which all are made to feel welcome here, all are valued for their individual contributions, and all are treated with respect and dignity. Individuals from a variety of backgrounds can enrich the tapestry of the University's workforce in many ways, bringing in new ideas, new and creative solutions to old problems, and new perspectives. Supervisors play a direct role in creating and maintaining this type of environment for all of their employees. Moreover, the University has in place a Nondiscrimination Policy Statement [include link to policy] to ensure that such a work environment is maintained in all areas/units throughout the University.
In working to create and maintain a positive environment, some supervisors have a tendency to lose sight of the fact that the workplace can still be fun, that individuals can still have fun at work, and that employees should look forward to and enjoy their work and the workplace. Supervisors are the University's role models for positive work behaviors and establishing a positive work environment. Jokes at the expense of and inappropriate comments about individual workers or groups are not a part of a welcoming, positive environment. Supervisors should address this type of behavior at the time of the incident and seek to effectively put an end to such behavior.
Another of the top hidden reasons that employees leave is that they feel that there are too few growth and advancement opportunities. [see item 4 in bibliography] Supervisors are encouraged to provide their employees with opportunities for professional development. Many areas of the University already have excellent employee development programs in place or make plans in their annual budgets to allow for professional development opportunities outside the University environment. Supervisors may choose to utilize one or both of these methods, depending on the needs of the position and the employee. By showing support for the professional development of the employee, the supervisor is conveying the message that the University values the employee and his/her work, and that it is important to the job and the employee to develop and maintain new skills.
Work environments in which professional development is not a part of the unit culture often find themselves in a bind. Employees are not always able to keep up with the new technology and/or innovations in their field and may find themselves frustrated in their work. In this case, employees may seek other employment where training is offered. Some supervisors may be hesitant to spend time and money on training employees for fear that better trained employees will leave the unit. Leigh Branham, author of The Seven Hidden Reasons Employees Leave, sums up the problem with this philosophy when he states, “It comes down to this--you have to train your employees so they can leave, or else they’ll leave. Put another way, what if you don’t train them and they stay??[see item 4 in bibliography]
Each person that is part of the Purdue community brings unique qualities and characteristics to the fabric of the University. Individuals should be valued for their contributions to the overall mission of the University and for the work that they do. In welcoming diverse employees to the Purdue community, it is important for members of the unit to set aside their preconceived notions of how a particular person should act, and allow that person to define him- or herself as s/he wishes to be seen.
The following are suggestions for all employees to keep in mind when welcoming diverse individuals into a unit or department.
- Take steps to insure that individuals from traditionally underrepresented groups within a unit are not treated as a “token?hire and are not expected to represent the voice of the entire group. Individuals should certainly be included on a committee where their expertise and opinion are valued, but should not bear the burden of serving on a multitude of committees, representing the “diverse?opinion.
- Take steps to insure that individuals from diverse backgrounds are not automatically expected to handle multicultural or diversity issues. Invitations to participate in these issues may certainly be offered, but acceptance of the invitation should not be expected.
- In the faculty arena, individuals should be allowed to set their work priorities and make a decision as to the level of participation in these issues as they see warranted, without the fear of repercussions for not participating in all activities associated with diversity and/or multiculturalism.
- For staff, again, work priority should dictate the level of participation that an individual is expected to give. Individuals from diverse backgrounds should not be expected to participate in these activities over and above their work obligations if all individuals at that same level within a unit are not likewise required to participate.
- Provide new employees from traditionally underrepresented groups with mentors from their own identity group as well as mentors from the majority group.
- Demonstrate collegiality toward diverse individuals and provide a comfortable, supportive climate for inclusivity.
- Include diverse individuals in informal networks and social events.
- Value the expertise of individuals who bring diversity to a unit or department.
- Make sure that diverse hires understand the tenure process and other important policies, rules and procedures at the time of orientation.
[Adapted from item 7 in bibliography]
In her publication, “Rising Above Cognitive Errors: Guidelines for Search, Tenure Review, and Other Evaluation Committees? JoAnn Moody states that faculty review committees should be aware of the following potential cognitive errors that have plagued hiring committees in the past. Committee members should take steps to mitigate the effects of these cognitive errors as they undertake the decision making process.
- Negative Stereotypes. The presumption of incompetence based on race/ethnicity and/or gender or other stereotype.
- Positive Stereotype. A person is presumed to be competent based on race/ethnicity and/or gender or other stereotype.
- Raising the Bar. Raising the requirements during the evaluation process.
- Elitism. Feeling superior or wanting to feel superior.
- First Impressions.“Personal values and likes/dislikes [that] can inordinately influence us to make fast and unexamined assumptions and even decisions about a person's worth or appeal.?/li>
- The Longing to Clone. “Reproduce yourself or your group as nearly as you can.?Evaluators search for others who are similar to themselves with regard to personal characteristics such as appearance, beliefs, and/or social status, to name a few.
- Good Fit/Bad Fit. “The longing to clone and to stay as a mono-culture within the department may be prompting the complaint that the candidate ‘just won’t fit with us.?…Can also appear in tenure reviews when the tenure candidate is faulted for not being collegial.?/li>
- Provincialism.Closely related to cloning; undervaluing something outside your own province, circle, or clan.
- Extraneous Myths and Assumptions. For example, “No minority would want to live here?It's too isolated. That goes for an unmarried woman, too?I am not going to waste my time on those kinds of candidates.?/li>
- Wishful Thinking: Opinions rather than facts and evidence. Holding on to a notion in spite of overwhelming evidence to the contrary and also casually allowing this notion to cloud one's cognitive processes.
- Self-fulfilling Prophecy. Structuring our interaction with someone so that we can receive information congruent with our assumptions or so that we can avoid information incongruent with assumptions.
- Seizing a Pretext. Creating a smoke screen to hide one's real concerns or agenda.
- Character over Context. A decision maker does not consider the particular context and any extenuating circumstances within that context but instead thinks automatically that individual's personal characteristics are the explanation for his/her behavior.
- Premature Ranking/Digging In. Evaluators often rush to give numerical preferences to the candidates or applicants they are considering. “Rush-to-ranking?
- Momentum of the Group. The majority of the group favors one candidate, making it more difficult for remaining group members to resist the push toward consensus.
[see item 25 in bibliography]
For more tips and information regarding the hiring process at Purdue, please refer to the following:
Below are five factors to consider in creating an inclusive climate for faculty. These factors include education and scholarship, community connections, climate and culture, representation and voice, and institutional transformation. Each factor is accompanied by a set of questions to assist departments in evaluating their climates with regard to underrepresented groups. Department heads and search chairs are encouraged to evaluate their unit's climate toward inclusivity and make needed adjustments in order to be welcoming to all candidates, guests, and employees. Evaluation of a unit's climate toward inclusivity is recommended for all departments. [see item 7 in bibliography]
1. EDUCATION AND SCHOLARSHIP
- Is academic expertise in areas such as African American studies, women's studies, ethnic studies, and/or Latino studies viewed as value added or marginal?
- Are degrees from predominately White colleges or elite institutions viewed as more credible than degrees from predominately African American, Latino serving, Tribal colleges, or more diverse institutions?
2. COMMUNITY CONNECTIONS
- Will diverse faculty feel connected to the community where the college or university is located?
- Will this community be a good place for diverse ethnic, cultural or racial groups to live?
- Do networks exists in the community to support the diverse faculty's life outside of the college or university?
3. CLIMATE AND CULTURE
- What are the perceptions of other diverse faculty about the university and community?
- Does the internal climate of the institution support diversity, inclusion and pluralism?
- Is there a critical mass of diverse faculty?
- Is diversity visible on campus through program initiatives?
- Is there a revolving door syndrome for diverse hires?
4. REPRESENTATION AND VOICE
- What is the nature of power and influence of diverse faculty, staff and administrators?
- Are diverse faculty expected to blend into the mainstream and assimilate, or are their cognitive styles valued and respected?
- What happens to diverse faculty who challenge, ask critical questions or present unconventional view points?
5. INSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATION
- What roles do diverse faculty play in governance, strategic planning and departmental priorities?
- Are diverse faculty treated as central or tokens in the power structure?
- Is diversity actualized in systems and policies?
- Is the college or university open to change and transformation regarding diversity issues?
[see item 7 in bibliography]
Listed below are “quick tips?for supervisors, summarizing recommended action steps for retention, particularly with regard to employees from traditionally underrepresented groups.
- During the on campus interview, arrange a meeting with another employee from the candidate's identity group, if requested by the candidate.
- Offer fair and equitable compensation packages to all new hires. Salary offers should be based on the knowledge, skills, and experience a candidate will bring to the position, as well as fair market value for the work to be done, not on characteristics such as skin color, gender, or religion. Salary discrepancies that cannot be attributed to skills and experience are known to cause morale and equity problems within work units.
- On the new employee's first day,
- be sure to welcome the new employee to the department and to provide an orientation as to necessary departmental and building matters, such as where office supplies may be obtained and from whom, the location of the nearest vending machines or food sales establishment, and the restroom facilities.
- extend to the new employee an invitation for lunch sometime during the first week of employment. The employee may have already made lunch plans for the first day, not knowing what to expect, so it is recommended that the offer be open-ended for the first week of employment in order that the new employee not be put in an awkward situation on the first day.
- Provide mentors to new employees from underrepresented groups.
- Offer opportunities to participate in multicultural activities to the entire department and don’t expect an employee from a traditionally underrepresented group to be the department's lone representative to all multicultural or diversity committees. It is fine to offer the opportunity to an employee from an underrepresented group on an individual basis. However, be aware that not every person from an underrepresented group wishes to be involved with multicultural and/or diversity activities. Thus, it is recommended that individuals be given the option to participate. If a supervisor feels strongly that the individual's perspective on a particular issue would be of great value to the committee, the supervisor may wish to express these thoughts to the employee as a way of encouraging his/her involvement.
- Include diverse individuals in informal networks and social events.
- Be open to perspectives other than your own. Be willing to listen to your employees. It is not always necessary that everyone agree, but it is vital that all employees are treated with respect and dignity.
- Consider offering professional development in the area of diversity and/or multicultural awareness on a departmental level to all employees.
- Review departmental publications to ensure that diversity is represented.
- Departments that have an influx of new staff at certain times during the year, such as the beginning of the academic year, may want to hold a social event after all new hires have begun their employment in order to facilitate introductions among employees.
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