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Research Papers & Projects

Our Scholarship of Teaching and Learning efforts are ongoing. Here you'll find research projects we're leading or supporting with funding or personnel. They're in various stages of completion, so check back often to review and discuss.

Publication

Calahan, C. A. (2015). Appendix F: Key Questions to Explore in Developing an Assessment Plan in Deardorff, D.K., Demystifying Outcomes Assessment for International Educators: A Practical Approach (pp. 186-200). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

Projects & Presentations

This presentation was created by the following Teaching for Tomorrow team:

Marcy Towns  - Sr. Scholar
Guang Cheng
Stephanie Gardner
Meghan Norris
Brian Todd
Jolena Waddell

2016

Hsu, H. K., Wang, C. & Levesque-Bristol, C. (2016, August). Testing self-determination theory in online learning environment. Poster presentation at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention, Denver, CO.

    Abstract: While various researches from different domains have confirmed the validity of self-determination theory (SDT) in the conventional learning setting, only a few attempts have been made to explore its application in the online learning context. Chen and Jang (2010) concluded that the SDT-based model was unable to predict learning outcomes. Using a similar approach of structural equation modeling, the current study was aimed at examining whether satisfying the three universal SDT needs enhances learning outcomes in the online learning environment. More than 300 undergraduate students from seven online courses took part in the study and completed the surveys. The results indicated that a student-centered learning climate would foster the satisfaction of students’ basic psychological needs. The satisfaction of the basic psychological needs would in turn enhance self-regulated motivation, which would then lead to higher perceived knowledge transfer and more gains on course objectives.

Tan, D., Yough, M., Wang, C. (2016, August). Chinese International Students’ Willingness to Communicate in the ESL Classrooms. Poster presentation at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention, Denver, CO.

    Abstract: The current study examined Chinese international students’ willingness to communicate (WTC) in English as a second language (ESL) classrooms and regular classrooms in the U.S. Survey data from undergraduate students (N=50) at a large Midwestern university shows that their WTC was predicted directly and indirectly by motivation, confidence, and classroom environment. Interview data from 4 participants supported the survey results, and suggested among classroom environment factors teacher played a most significant role in students’ WTC in ESL classrooms. Moreover, in regular classrooms, teacher, confidence, task and class size were the most salient factors that influenced participants’ WTC.

Wang, C. & Levesque-Bristol, C. (2016, August). Promoting knowledge transfer through autonomy-supportive environment: Both degree and tendency matter. Poster presentation at the American Psychological Association Annual Convention, Denver, CO.

    Abstract: The goal in the present study was to use self-determination theory to explore the motivational factors that promote college students’ transfer ability, and also enrich the empirical studies on self-determination theory in the field of education area. Although the positive effects of autonomy-supportive environments were repeatedly demonstrated, few studies paid attention to the changes of autonomy-support. However, during a natural 3-month college course, it is possible that students’ perception of autonomy-support would change. In study 1, we explored the dynamic changes of students’ motivation and transfer in different groups of perceived autonomy support. The results showed that students who perceived high autonomy-supportive learning climate demonstrated more motivation and better perceived knowledge transfer ability. In study 2, we examined the effects of students’ perception of autonomy-support changes on students’ motivation and transfer. Results showed that students who perceived increases in autonomy-supportive learning climate demonstrated more motivation and better perceived knowledge transfer ability at the end of the semester.

Yu, S., Levesque-Bristol, C., Zhang, F. (2016, June). A Life History Perspective on Self-Determination: Subjective Life Expectancy as a Predictor of Self-Determined Career Decision and Academic Motivation. Poster presentation at the 6th International Conference on Self-Determination Theory, Victoria, BC, Canada.

2015

Krishnan, L. A., Richards, K. A. R., & Bajek, M. (2015 December). Service Learning in Undergraduate Audiology Education. American Journal of Audiology.

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to incorporate a service learning project in an undergraduate audiology course and evaluate how it affected student learning in the class.

Calahan, C.A. & Sass, M. (2015, May). Digital Badges to Assess Intercultural Learning in Bloom’s Affective Domain, Association of International Educators Annual Conference, Boston, MA.

    Abstract: The assessment of changing values is elusive in intercultural learning. This interactive session presented a tool kit for faculty and an innovative assessment tool that organizes a system of digital badges, challenges, and active learning tasks to document evidence of global learning in the Affective Domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Calahan, C.A., Duke, S.T., & Sass, M. (2015, March). Designing Intercultural Learning Assignments Can be Easy: An Experiential Session using an AAC&U VALUE Rubric. Forum on Education Abroad Conference, New Orleans, LA.

    Abstract: Most colleges and universities claim to prepare graduates for a global society, yet the assessment of intercultural competency is elusive, especially in assessing attitudes, skills, and knowledge which fall under Bloom’s Cognitive and Affective Domains. This round table introduced instructional design to create valid assignments for study abroad.

Calahan, C.A. & Sass, M. (2015, February). Artifacts of the Intercultural Learning Process for Assessment, Accountability, and Accreditation, Presentation at the annual conference of the Association of International Education Administrators, Washington, DC.

    Abstract: The mission statements and strategic plans of most colleges and universities claim to prepare graduates for a global society and global citizenship. Yet the assessment of intercultural competency is elusive especially in assessing attitudes, skills, and knowledge which fall under Bloom’s Affective Domain. This round table facilitated exploration and discussion to map the process of student learning relating to intercultural attitudes, skills, and knowledge using Bloom’s Affective Domain of learning.

Calahan, C.A. & Sass, M. (2015, February). The AAC&U VALUE Rubric and Concept Mapping of Intercultural Learning Assignments That Use Technology, Digital Devices, and Social Media. Workshop on Intercultural Skills Enhancement and Conference, Winston-Salem, NC.

    Abstract: “For this generation digital devices are now part of the interpretive experience” - Jacquie Whitt. This session collected the best practices of the participants, uses A.S.K.S2 and the AAC&U VALUE Rubric, to construct a concept map of successful pedagogies using technology, digital devices, and social media to document intercultural learning.

Wang, C., Yao, M. L., & Guo, F. F. (2015, May). Can cognitive conflict induce more learning? The type matters. Poster Presentation at 27th Association for Psychological Science Convention, New York, N.Y., USA.

    Abstract: Cognitive conflict can be identified as an important process, which can lead to students’ curiosity and deeper thinking. However, there are controversial results regarding its effectiveness. Three problems exist in previous cognitive conflicts research. First, most studies didn’t directly explore the relationship between cognitive conflict and student engagement. Second, cognitive conflicts are often controlled by researchers rather than perceived by students. Third, many studies are laboratory experiments, which lacked ecological validity. To overcome these shortcomings, the current study examined the effects of students' perceived cognitive conflict on engagement and transfer in a real problem-solving context. Ninety-six college students were selected to participate in the study and complete the cognitive conflict scale (Lee & Kwon, 2003) and behavior engagement scale (Skinner, Kindermann, & Furrer, 2009). Transfer was examined with open-ended questions. Results showed that students who perceived constructive conflicts performed better in engagement and transfer than students who perceived destructive conflicts. Behavior engagements mediated the relationship between cognitive conflicts and transfer.

Yu, S., Levesque-Bristol, C. (2015, August). Are Students in Some College Majors More Self-Determined in Their Studies than Others? Poster presentation at American Psychological Association Annual Convention 2015, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Yu, S., Chen, B., & Assor, A. (2015, July). Maternal Validation of Chinese College Student’s Inner Compass as a Predictor of Children’s Vitality: The Mediating Role of Autonomy to Spend Time with Mom. Symposium presentation at the 14th European Congress of Psychology, Milan, Italy.

2014

Calahan, C.A. & Parker, H.E. (2014, November). Digital Badges to assess Global Learning using Bloom’s Affective Domain. Professional and Organizational Development Conference, Dallas, TX.

    Abstract: The mission statements and strategic plans of most colleges and universities claim to prepare graduates for a global society and global citizenship, yet the assessment of intercultural competency is elusive especially in assessing values, attitudes, and beliefs which fall under Bloom’s Affective Domain. This interactive session presented a tool kit for faculty and an innovative assessment tool, provided by the University’s Center for Instructional Excellence to faculty, staff, and students, that organizes a system of digital badges, challenges, and active learning tasks to capture and document evidence of global or intercultural learning in the Affective Domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Krishnan, L., Masters, C., Calahan, C.A., & Richards, K.A.R. (2014, November). Developing Intercultural Competence: A Service-Learning Experience in Zambia. American Speech-Language Association Conference, Orlando, FL.

    Abstract: SLHS in Zambia is a study abroad program that uses a service-learning model. Cultural competence measured via the Public Affairs Scale (PAS) increased after completion of this program. The Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI®) and the PAS were administered pre- and post- to compare outcomes from the two measures.

Calahan, C.A., Cartwright, C. & Sass, M. (2014, October). Development of Intercultural Knowledge and Competency: Online Application of the AAC&U Rubric in Undergraduate Education, Society for Intercultural Education, Training and Research Conference, Portland, OR.

    Abstract: The mission statements and strategic plans of most colleges and universities claim to prepare graduates for a global society and global citizenship, yet the process assessment of intercultural competency is elusive especially in documenting the values, attitudes, and beliefs which fall under Bloom’s Affective Domain. The categories in Bloom’s Affective Domain include receiving and responding to phenomena, estimating the worth of values, organizing values, and internalizing values. Using the AAC&U Intercultural Knowledge and Competence VALUE Rubric relating to intercultural openness and curiosity, cultural self-awareness and worldview frameworks, and intercultural empathy and verbal and nonverbal communication as the basis for assessment, this highly interactive session presented engaging assignments for students that faculty and others can utilize as an innovative open source e-portfolio assessment tool. Passport: PUPIL and the Intercultural Learning 101 “tool kit” are provided by the Purdue University’s Center for Instructional Excellence to faculty, staff, and students to organize fun student learning assignments, a system of digital badges, challenges, and active learning tasks, and reflections to capture the process and document evidence-based global or intercultural learning in the Affective Domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Calahan, C.A. & Sass, M. (2014, October). Digital Badges to assess Intercultural Learning and Global Civic Engagement, AAC&U Global Learning in College Conference, Minneapolis, MN.

    Abstract: The mission statements and strategic plans of most colleges and universities claim to prepare graduates for a global society and global citizenship. Yet the assessment of intercultural competency is elusive especially in assessing values, attitudes, and beliefs which fall under Bloom’s Affective Domain. The categories in Bloom’s Affective Domain include receiving and responding to phenomena, estimating the worth of values, organizing values, and internalizing values. Using the AAC&U VALUE Rubrics as the basis for assessment, this interactive session presented a tool kit for faculty and an innovative open source e-portfolio assessment tool, provided by the Purdue University’s Center for Instructional Excellence to faculty, staff, and students, that organizes a system of digital badges, challenges, and active learning tasks to capture and document evidence of global or intercultural learning and global civic engagement in the Affective Domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Calahan, C.A. & Parker, H.E. (2014, October). Assessing Affective Constructs in Intercultural Learning Using Digital Badges, Assessment Institute, Indianapolis, IN.

    Abstract: The mission statements and strategic plans of most colleges and universities claim to prepare graduates for a global society and global citizenship, yet the assessment of intercultural competency is elusive especially in assessing values, attitudes, and beliefs which fall under Bloom’s Affective Domain. This interactive session presented a tool kit for faculty and an innovative assessment tool, provided by the University’s Center for Instructional Excellence to faculty, staff, and students, that organizes a system of digital badges, challenges, and active learning tasks to capture and document evidence of global or intercultural learning in the Affective Domain of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Parker, H.E. & Calahan, C.A. (2014, October). Using Digital Badges to Assess Civic Engagement: Global Citizenship/Social Responsibility. Poster session at the Assessment Institute, Indianapolis, IN.

    Abstract: This poster session will introduce participants to an innovative way for students to assess and document their development of civic engagement. The online program is called Civic Engagement: Global Citizenship/Social Responsibility and it is housed at the Purdue digital badge tool system called Passport. This interactive program presents the students with seven civic engagement challenges and the students earn a badge after completing each challenge. In the current Digital Age, this program can be used by students as a compliment to their online portfolios to share their accomplishments with colleagues and potential employers on any electronic device such an iPad.

Calahan, C.A. & Cartwright, C. (2014, July). Development of Intercultural Knowledge and Competency: Online Application of the AAC&U Rubric in Undergraduate Education, Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication, Portland, OR.

    Abstract: This evening session examined the background and the research methods used to develop the AAC&U VALUE Intercultural Knowledge and Competency Rubric and the application of this rubric to the instructional design and development of the Purdue University “Tool Kit” for intercultural learning.

Calahan, C.A., Ebner, P., Nennich, T., & Russell, M. (2014, June). A Faculty Tool Kit for Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Knowledge & Global Competence Embedded Learning Outcomes, North American Colleges and Teachers of Agriculture Journal, 58, 36.

    Abstract: If faculty are to be competent and confident in leading and assessing embedded learning activities, the administration must provide them with the tools and training/education to develop the needed competencies to provide a deeper level of knowledge and experiences within our disciplines and departments.

Calahan, C.A., Jackson, R., & Pinder, A. (2014, February). Three Strategies for Faculty Engagement in Internationalizing the Curriculum. Invited presentation at the annual international conference of the Association of International Education Administrators, Washington, DC.

    Abstract: When a university has 127 Chinese students in 2007 then increase to 2250 students in 2012, what does it mean to be a Research One University in a globalized world? How are the University of Illinois and Purdue University changing to meet the demands of the 21st Century? In what ways have the missions of higher education changed? How will faculty best educate and engage students with the multiple perspectives on global concerns? What will a global society require of the graduates we train and prepare?

2013

Parker H., Carrillo-Munoz A., & Calahan C. (2013, October). Purdue University's Passport to Intercultural Learning (PUPIL) as an Intercultural Skills Assessment Tool. Poster session at the Assessment Institute, Indianapolis, IN.

    Abstract: This poster session will introduce participants to an innovative way for students to assess and document their development of intercultural skills. The online program is called Purdue University's Passport to Intercultural Learning (PUPIL) and it is housed at the Purdue digital badge tool system called Passport. PUPIL presents the students with seven intercultural learning challenges and the students earn a badge after completing each challenge. In the current Digital Age, PUPIL can be used by students as a compliment to their online portfolios to share their accomplishments with colleagues and potential employers on any electronic device such an iPad.

Calahan, C.A., (2013, May). Purdue University Passport to Intercultural Learning:PUPIL. Poster session at the Institute for Curriculum and Campus Internationalization, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

    Abstract: The Purdue digital badge tool is called Passport and can be used by students to share their accomplishments with others, such as a potential employer in an interview or a cover letter. PUPIL is a specific application of Passport designed for you to document your Intercultural Learning.

Ayers, D.P., Calahan, C.A., Potts, J.D., & Sohn, A., (2013, February). Higher Education’s Adaptation to a Global Setting and Future. Presentation at the annual conference of the Association of International Education Administrators, New Orleans, LA.

    Abstract: What does it mean to be a national research university in a globalized world? How are the University of Illinois and Purdue University changing to meet the demands of the 21st Century? In what ways have the missions of higher education changed? How will faculty best educate and engage students with the multiple perspectives on global concerns? What will a global society require of the graduates we train and prepare?

Calahan, C.A., Levesque-Bristol, C., Nelson, D.B., & McCann, J.A., (2013, January). A Perfect Storm: Campus Wide Course Redesign at an American R1 University Meets the Pacific Rim. Presentation at the annual International Higher Education Teaching and Learning Conference, Orlando, FL

    Abstract: Purdue is embarking on a campus-wide course redesign effort; Instruction Matters: Purdue Academic Course Transformation (IMPACT). The overarching goal of IMPACT is to partner with and develop a network of faculty committed to the transformation of foundational courses, employing innovative and experiential pedagogies, often supported by technologies, to create an enhanced student-centered teaching and learning environment. IMPACT is informed by research and aimed at enhancing student learning, competence, confidence, and success. At the same time, International students at Purdue comprise 20% of the total student enrollment. More specifically, from 2007 to 2012, Purdue University Chinese undergraduate student enrollment grew from 127 to 2,706. When the 1,300 international freshmen arrived on campus in 2011, 900 were from China. The College of Management had 43% international student enrollment in its freshman class. Seventy-five percent of the international undergraduates are English Second Language (ESL) students. What are potential opportunities and challenges to engage and integrate students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds within the learning context, especially re-designed courses? To what extent can course re-design, focusing on transformative learning, benefit a diverse group of learners? Results of a pilot study conducted in reading centered courses, suggest that international students perform significantly better than national students on quizzes, exams, class activities, and discussions when technology-enhanced and ESL-friendly pedagogies were provided. Implications from the IMPACT pedagogical approach will also be discussed.

2012

Ayers, D.P., Bryant, G., Calahan, C.A., & Potts, J.D., (2012, November). Innovations: Purdue University Supports the International Education Mission. Presentation at the regional conference of NAFSA: Association of International Educators, Columbus, OH.

    Abstract: The IP Campus Partners Programs was developed in the fall of 2012 for the purpose of coordinating the wide spread efforts of individual units focused on meeting the needs of an ever growing international undergraduate student population, on the Purdue West Lafayette campus. Many new services, positions and programs were initiated in the previous 18 months, primarily designed to address the large influx of students from China. In a 5 year span, Chinese undergraduate student enrollment moved from 127 to 2,706 presently. Faculty and administrators alike were generally pleased with this new enrollment reality, but understandably, needed assistance adjusting to this new campus environment. The IP Campus Partners Program in an effort to coordinate efforts, increase communication, stimulate discussions, assess programs and create an environment of cooperation focused on the common goal of undergraduate student success, both domestic and international students. Beginning with focus groups and survey information, efforts were made to better understand our constituents to more effectively meet the campus needs.

Ayers, D.P., Bryant, G., Calahan, C.A., & Potts, J.D., (2012, November). Rallying Resources to Support the New Chinese Students. Presentation at the regional conference of NAFSA: Association of International Educators, Columbus, OH.

    Abstract: During the spring semester of 2012, approximately 11,000 domestic and 4000 international Purdue University undergraduate students in 4 colleges received invitations to complete an on-line survey, replicating a University of Illinois study conducted the fall semester of 2011. Undergraduate students from the four colleges with the highest percentages of enrolled international students were selected as the population from the College of Science, College of Liberal Arts, Krannert School of Management and the College of Engineering. Students received the survey invitation via e-mail in early May of 2011. Two follow up e-mails, sent approximately one week apart, were sent to encourage a higher response rate.Seventeen hundred and thirty (15%) domestic students accepted the invitation of which 1346 (78%) domestic students completed the survey. Eighteen hundred and three Chinese students, 338 Korean students, 75 Indian students, 40 Malaysian students, and 1309 remaining other international students from 119 countries accepted the survey invitation.Student survey starting rates were 36% for Chinese, 14% for Korean, and 21% for all other internationals. Survey completion rates were 18% for Chinese, 9% for Korean, and 12% for all other internationals. The survey completion to acceptance rates for Indian and Malaysian students are not known.Following are some of the demographic results which may be of special interest with an emphasis on the Chinese cohort due to their significant numbers at Purdue. The Chinese student sample included 56% male and 44% female undergraduates with 42% being 18-19 years of age, 44% were 20-21 years old, and 14% were 22 years and older. Eighty-eight percent of Chinese students at age 16 years resided in an urban area, 7% lived in suburban homes, and 5% lived in rural areas. Nine percent of domestic students lived in urban areas. Sixty-eight percent were from the suburbs and 23% were from rural areas.